title: Multiple vulnerabilities - Surveillance via Symantec Web Gateway product: Symantec Web Gateway
vulnerable version: <= 5.1.0.* fixed version: 5.1.1 CVE number: CVE-2013-1616, CVE-2013-1617, CVE-2013-4670, CVE-2013-4671, CVE-2013-4672 impact: Critical homepage: https://www.symantec.com/ found: 2012-12-18 by: Wolfgang Ettlinger SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab https://www.sec-consult.com =======================================================================
"Symantec Web Gateway protects organizations against multiple types of Web-borne malware and gives organizations the flexibility of deploying it as either a virtual appliance or on physical hardware. Powered by Insight, Symantec’s innovative reputation based malware filtering technology, Web Gateway relies on a global network of greater than 210 million systems to identify new threats before they cause disruption in organizations."
SEC Consult has identified several vulnerabilities within the components of Symantec Web Gateway in the course of a short crash test. Some components have been spot-checked, while others have not been tested at all.
Several of the discovered vulnerabilities below can be chained together in order to run arbitrary commands with the privileges of the "root" user on the appliance.
An attacker can get unauthorized access to the appliance and plant backdoors or access configuration files containing credentials for other systems (eg. Active Directory/LDAP credentials) which can be used in further attacks. Since all web traffic passes through the appliance, interception of HTTP as well as the plaintext form of HTTPS traffic (if SSL Deep Inspection feature in use), including sensitive information like passwords and session cookies is possible.
If SSL Deep Inspection is enabled, the appliance holds a private key for a Certificate Authority (CA) certificate that is installed/trusted on all workstations in the company. If this private key is compromised by an attacker, arbitrary certificates can be signed. These certificates will then pass validation on the client machines, enabling in various attacks targeting clients (further MITM attacks, phishing, evilgrade, ...).
The recommendation of SEC Consult is to switch off the product until a comprehensive security audit based on a security source code review has been performed and all identified security deficiencies have been resolved by the vendor.
1) Reflected Cross Site Scripting (XSS) (CVE-2013-4670) A reflected cross site scripting vulnerability was found. This allows effective session hijacking attacks of administrator session cookies.
2) Persistent Cross Site Scripting (XSS) (CVE-2013-4670) Moreover a persistent cross site scripting vulnerability allows an unauthenticated user to inject script code into the administration interface. This script code will be executed once an administrator visits the administration interface.
3) OS Command Injection (CVE-2013-1616) Multiple OS command injection vulnerabilities were discovered. Authenticated users can execute arbitrary commands on the underlying operating system with the privileges of the "apache" operating system user.
This can be used to get persistent access to the affected system (eg. by planting backdoors), accessing all kinds of locally stored information or interception of web traffic that passes through the appliance.
4) Security Misconfiguration (CVE-2013-4672) Unprivileged operating system users (eg. apache) can gain root privileges due to a misconfiguration of the sudo program.
5) SQL Injection (CVE-2013-1617) Several SQL injection vulnerabilities were identified that allow an authenticated administrator to issue manipulated SQL commands.
6) Cross Site Request Forgery (CVE-2013-4671) The cross site request forgery protection implemented can be bypassed easily. Using this vulnerability, an attacker can issue requests in the context of administrative user sessions.
Several of the vulnerabilities above can be chained together by an unauthenticated attacker in order to run arbitrary commands with the privileges of the "root" operating system user on the appliance.
1) Reflected Cross Site Scripting (XSS) (CVE-2013-4670) The following URL demonstrates a reflected cross site scripting vulnerability:
2) Persistent Cross Site Scripting (XSS) (CVE-2013-4670) The "blocked.php" page which is accessible without authentication allows to inject script code to the "Blocking Feedback" functionality on the administration interface. The following URL demonstrates this issue. The payload of the parameter "u" will be stored permanently:
3) OS Command Injection (CVE-2013-1616) The functionality to change the hostname as well as the "Test Ping" functionality allow to inject commands enclosed in backticks (`). These commands are run as the system user "apache". Affected scripts: /spywall/nameConfig.php /spywall/networkConfig.php
Detailed proof of concept exploits have beem removed for this vulnerability.
4) Security Misconfiguration (CVE-2013-4672) The /etc/sudoers file allows the users "apache" and "admin" to run several critical commands with root privileges. As the user "apache" is able to run commands like "chmod", "chown" and "insmod" without the need of a password, an attacker that is able to issue commands as this user (see 3) can effectively gain root privileges.
5) SQL Injection (CVE-2013-1617) The following URLs demonstrate the SQL injection flaws found by printing the username and password hash of all users:
https://<host>/spywall/feedback_report.php?variable=1) UNION SELECT 1,2,3,4,username,6,7,8,9,password FROM users -- &operator=notequal&operand=x https://<host>/spywall/edit_alert.php?alertid=11%20UNION%20SELECT%201,2,username,password,5,6,7,8,9,10,111,12,13,14,15,16,17,18%20FROM%20users%20--%20
6) Cross Site Request Forgery (CVE-2013-4671) As an example, the following request configures a LDAP server to authenticate administrative users:
POST /spywall/ldapConfig.php HTTP/1.1 Host: <host> Cookie: PHPSESSID=<valid-cookie> Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Length: 247
The sole CSRF protection is the "posttime" parameter that contains a unix timestamp that has to be greater than the one in the last request. Using the value of eg. "9999999999" would always succeed.
Using the vulnerabilities mentioned above, the following attack has been implemented (the exploit code will not be published):
1) A user protected by Symantec Web Gateway visits a website that embeds an image (possible in most web forums), a URL or an IFrame. The URL of the resource points to a blocked page (eg. the EICAR test file) and also includes script code (Persistent XSS). 2) The Symantec Web Gateway blocks the request and redirects the user to the blocked.php script. If the blocked URL contains the parameter "history=-2" (which has been added by the attacker) the URL/script (Persistent XSS) is automatically stored as a "Blocking Feedback" entry in the admin interface 3) When the administrator visits the "Blocking Feedback" page, the injected script is executed. Using the OS command injection flaw, the script now automatically downloads and executes a shell script. 4) As the user "apache" has permission to execute "chmod" and "chown" as root, the shell script can now create a SUID binary and run a reverse shell as root. 5) The attacker can now access the system with highest (root) privileges
Note: This attack only requires a user (protected by the Symantec Web Gateway) to visit a "malicious" page. This can be achieved by sending phishing mails to employees, or embedding images, URLs or IFrames in websites employees would likely visit.
If the attacker has already access to the target network, this is of course not necessary - the persistent XSS vulnerability can be exploited directly.
Note: No prior knowledge about hostnames or internal IP addresses in the target network is needed!
A detailed proof of concept exploit has been created but will not be published.
The vulnerabilities have been verified to exist in the Symantec Web Gateway version 184.108.40.206, which was the most recent version at the time of discovery.
Symantec confirmed that SWG version 5.1.0 (& all sub-releases) and prior releases are affected.
2013-02-22: Sending advisory and proof of concept exploit via encrypted channel. 2013-02-22: Vendor acknowledges receipt of advisory. 2013-03-05: Requesting status update. 2013-03-05: Vendor confirms vulnerabilities, is working on solutions. 2013-03-22: Requesting status update. 2013-03-22: Vendor is still working on solutions. 2013-04-19: Requesting status update and release schedule. 2013-04-19: Vendor is in the "final phases" of releasing an update. 2013-06-05: Sending reminder regarding deadlindes defined in disclosure policy. 2013-06-05: Vendor will release an update in "Mid-July". 2013-07-16: Vendor postpones update to timeframe beween July 22 and 25. 2013-07-25: Vendor releases advisory and product update (version 5.1.1). 2013-07-26: SEC Consult releases coordinated security advisory.
Update to Symantec Web Gateway version 5.1.1.
More information can be found at: http://www.symantec.com/security_response/securityupdates/detail.jsp?fid=security_advisory&pvid=security_advisory&year=&suid=20130725_00
No workaround available.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab
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EOF Wolfgang Ettlinger / @2013