Peplink InControl 2 CDM - (API) Persistent Vulnerability

Type vulnerlab
Reporter Vulnerability Laboratory [Research Team] - Lawrence Amer -
Modified 2016-05-18T00:00:00


                                            Document Title:
Peplink InControl 2 CDM - (API) Persistent Vulnerability

References (Source):

Release Date:

Vulnerability Laboratory ID (VL-ID):

Common Vulnerability Scoring System:

Product & Service Introduction:
InControl 2 provides full-fleet device management when used in combination with our vehicle-mounted, GPS–enabled devices, such as 
the MAX HD2 and BR1. Track your devices wherever they are using our interactive maps. Check vehicle speed, cellular coverage, and 
traffic conditions. Play back route histories in real-time.

(Copy of the Homepage: )

Abstract Advisory Information:
The vulnerability lab core team discovered an application-side web vulnerability in the official Peplink InControl 2 cloud based device managemet web-application.

Vulnerability Disclosure Timeline:
2016-05-11: Researcher Notification & Coordination (Lawrence Amer - Vulnerability Laboratory)
2016-05-12: Vendor Notification (Peplink Security Team)
2016-05-17: Vendor Fix/Patch (Peplink Security Team)
2016-05-18: Public Disclosure (Vulnerability Laboratory)

Discovery Status:

Affected Product(s):
Product: InControl 2 - Cloud Device Managment (Web-Application) 2016 Q2

Exploitation Technique:

Severity Level:

Technical Details & Description:
A persistent cross site vulnerability has been discoverd in the official Peplink InControl 2 cloud based device managemet web-application.
The security issue allows remote attackers to inject own malicious script codes to the application-side of the vulnerable service module.

The vulnerability is located in `create_organization` parameter of the `/r/api/create_organization` module. 
Remote attackers and low privileged web-application user accounts are able to inject own malicious script code context in the 
organization name field. The data of the POST method request is bypassing the validation, executes without a secure encoding 
or a restriction in the web-application. The persistent execution point occurs in the organization name parameter of that 
appeared setup wizard. The injection point is the create_organization POST method request of the basic service API. The issue 
can be exploited by remote attackers with prepared url as POST method request or via escalte by a restricted user account.

The security risk of the web vulnerability is estimated as medium with a cvss (common vulnerability scoring system) count of 3.3. 
Exploitation of the persistent input validation web vulnerability requires a low privileged web-application user account but is not 
limited to and low or medium user interaction. Successful exploitation of the vulnerability results in session hijacking, persistent 
phishing attacks, persistent external redirects to malicious source and persistent manipulation of affected or connected application modules.

Request Method(s): 
			[+] POST 

Vulnerable Module(s)
			[+] ./r/api/create_organization

Vulnerable Parameter(s)
			[+] organization_name 

Affected Module(s):
			[+] setup wizard menu

Proof of Concept (PoC):
The persistent vulnerability can be exploited by remote attackers with low privileged application user account and low or medium user interaction.
For security demonstration or to reproduce the vulnerability follow the provided information and steps below to continue.

1. User goes to "" to login 
2. After that the attacker goes to create_organization dialog 
3. The vulnerable parameter is the organization_name input 
Note: Fill the form with a persistent payload to executes malicious code in the marked vulnerable inputs 
4. The execution of persistent payload occured in the main application module for all users that are connected to the ogranization name parameter
5. Successful reprodue of the vulnerability!

--- PoC Session Logs [POST] (Inject) ---
POST /r/api/create_organization HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux i686; rv:22.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/22.0 Iceweasel/22.0
Cookie: __cfduid=d707771df2752d18740d39236d1f748901462987506; cf_clearance=795312ce388f66ea25954de6514ea44c150670fb-1462987511-3600; _littlecloud_session=c5bcb013d01b43ac7aef061a8c06ccc5; AWSELB=654DC1ED0EA27CE779185AE71C67FFFBC26DEA4D4C76ABADFA499E48512290AA839DFEB3C85A050DAF9EBFFA13657758D2C7CB78CB12516BCEB2609826860C3B357F516812A24557B4577E1698A9FA1952FA5271843ECDF42157633A1E90C9E2733A6F1608; _ga=GA1.2.897268804.1463013548; _gat=1; __lt=MHxSpYExghJd3H4QyDqxxCpDriKxX4fgbpLxnE5c60M%3D; __landing=true
Connection: keep-alive

--- PoC Session Logs [GET] (Execution) ---
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux i686; rv:22.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/22.0 Iceweasel/22.0
Accept: image/png,image/*;q=0.8,*/*;q=0.5
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: __cfduid=d707771df2752d18740d39236d1f748901462987506; cf_clearance=5d684461a6082376cbeaccc064231368b39e6bf3-1462991504-3600; _ga=GA1.2.897268804.1463013548; _littlecloud_session=900437254e7fcbb48fd84aa00862ba88; AWSELB=654DC1ED0EA27CE779185AE71C67FFFBC26DEA4D4C8F60904039BDCF1203BA5C6CD897B404DD197A779A819DE8857B588411DBA5B0E7CF5EB4DBFC26CEEC127B31CC172C79422529531BB059BA49AC0EC9DFBC3854BA99767719E4F6B8F907CA66E5F532EE; __lt=ZyCgo0hCOPbsNN62EP4MnuNuwnuHwWF5wrFp6XLVxug%3D; __landing=true; __sut=q5s7lU8tPrfhHK1Iw6vcoZZKfaRYp%2BvfVtjKoczLAZA%3D; __tot=7VI5498ZCqPAQzbQVUOdsA%3D%3D; __to=iBb1dIoQmOYobrHvKHBwUA%3D%3D; __ofpae=Unm8Pi26LBh7XrsDM4q4sA%3D%3D; __oite=Unm8Pi26LBh7XrsDM4q4sA%3D%3D; last_redirection=IEI7oak0byOWgQsCMp6FyrtU1h%2FRGSWBUD%2BA3bJmqdyH%2FSEGpG3iVCvjUI%2Bp7RNNC2n8R78DbU2pQwEMWn4zWw%3D%3D; _gat=1
Connection: keep-alive


Solution - Fix & Patch:
The vulnerability can be patched by a secure parse and encode of the vulnerable input field context.
Encode all inputs and restrict the input by disallowing the usage of special chars.
Parse also the outgoing values for the user notification by the appliance service itself to prevent malicious attack scenarios.

Note: The manufacturer of the product published an update regarding the security issues to PepLink InControl version 2.2.0.

Security Risk:
The security risk of the application-side web vulnerability in the cloud web-application are estimated as medium. (CVSS 3.3)

Credits & Authors:
Vulnerability Laboratory [Research Team] - Lawrence Amer -

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