djbdns misformats some long response packets; patch and example attack

2009-03-11T00:00:00
ID SECURITYVULNS:DOC:21454
Type securityvulns
Reporter Securityvulns
Modified 2009-03-11T00:00:00

Description

The DNS packet format allows names to be compressed by replacing the suffix of a name with an encoded offset to another location in the packet where the suffix already exists. Because of the encoding scheme, valid offsets are limited to < 16384.

In djbdns 1.05, response.c handles name compression. Line 12 has a comment "each < 16384" on the name_ptr array, but response_addname() from the same file does not enforce this limitation. The result is that when encoding names with a suffix that first appears >= 16384 bytes into the packet, response_addname() incorrectly tries to encode an offset to that name and produces a misformatted response packet. (At the bottom of this email, there is a patch for this.)

You can reproduce an exploit of this bug as follows:

# Download and build ucspi-tcp-0.88.
$ curl -O http://cr.yp.to/ucspi-tcp/ucspi-tcp-0.88.tar.gz
$ tar -zxf ucspi-tcp-0.88.tar.gz
$ echo &#39;gcc -include /usr/include/errno.h -O&#39; &gt; ucspi-tcp-0.88/conf-cc
$ make -C ucspi-tcp-0.88

# Download and build djbdns-1.05.
$ curl -O http://cr.yp.to/djbdns/djbdns-1.05.tar.gz
$ tar -zxf djbdns-1.05.tar.gz
$ echo &#39;gcc -include /usr/include/errno.h -O&#39; &gt; djbdns-1.05/conf-cc
$ make -C djbdns-1.05

# Use tcpclient and axfr-get to do a zone transfer for
# burlap.dempsky.org from shinobi.dempsky.org.
$ ./ucspi-tcp-0.88/tcpclient shinobi.dempsky.org 53 &#92;
      ./djbdns-1.05/axfr-get burlap.dempsky.org data data.tmp

# Use tinydns-data to compile data into data.cdb.
$ ./djbdns-1.05/tinydns-data

# Simulate an A query for www.x.burlap.dempsky.org using the data
# from the zone transfer.
$ ./djbdns-1.05/tinydns-get a www.x.burlap.dempsky.org

The last command will include these two lines in the output:

additional: foo 8388608 NS a.ns.bar
additional: foo 8388608 NS b.ns.bar

i.e., poisonous NS records for foo, delegating the domain to a.ns.bar and b.ns.bar; with my patch applied, only records within burlap.dempsky.org are output. Also, there's significant freedom in what poisonous records the attacker can produce.

The security hole here is that an administrator that uses djbdns 1.05 to serve DNS content does not expect that configuring his name server as above will cause it to send records for names outside of burlap.dempsky.org. I.e., an attacker can trick the administrator's name servers to include arbitrary DNS records in response to queries for names within domains he controls. Note that axfr-get is doing the right thing here: it already strips out names from outside of the specified zone; it's just that tinydns-get (and so tinydns and axfrdns) misformat the response packet. A direct NS query for foo would not generate these poisonous records.

As a real life example, I registered burlap.dempsky.org as a secondary domain with EveryDNS pulling data from my server. I was able to trick their name servers into serving the above poisonous NS records. EveryDNS's name servers have no authority over the hypothetical foo TLD, but I could have included poisonous NS records for everydns.net instead. The DNS cache from djbdns 1.05, dnscache, would have rejected these records as poison, but it's possible other DNS caches might accept them. (Either way, EveryDNS installed my patch earlier today, so this is no longer a risk.)

As another example, I registered burlap.afraid.org as a secondary domain with FreeDNS (freedns.afraid.org). They don't use djbdns, but if they had, this would have allowed me to include poisonous NS records for afraid.org that DNS caches like dnscache and BIND would have accepted.

Some caveats: this bug only affects domains that serve DNS content using tinydns and axfrdns (only for DNS queries over TCP; clients do not need AXFR permissions) from djbdns 1.05 and allow untrusted users to include arbitrary records (at least about 100 records, totalling about 30KB of space) within some zone.

In summary: if you use tinydns/axfrdns from djbdns 1.05 to serve authoritative DNS content and give untrusted users control over records you serve, I strongly suggest you install this patch. I don't believe other users are at risk, but they are encouraged to install this patch as well to be safe.

Finally, here's the promised patch:

--- response.c.orig 2009-02-24 21:04:06.000000000 -0800 +++ response.c 2009-02-24 21:04:25.000000000 -0800 @@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ uint16_pack_big(buf,49152 + name_ptr[i]); return response_addbytes(buf,2); } - if (dlen <= 128) + if ((dlen <= 128) && (response_len < 16384)) if (name_num < NAMES) { byte_copy(name[name_num],dlen,d); name_ptr[name_num] = response_len;