This advisory was originally posted to the US-CERT secure Portal library on August 12, 2014, and is being released to the NCCIC/ICS-CERT web site.
Independent researcher Andrea Micalizzi identified an Improper Privilege Management vulnerability within Ecava’s IntegraXor SCADA Server and reported it to Zero Day Initiative (ZDI). ZDI reported the vulnerability to NCCIC/ICS-CERT. Independent researcher Alain Homewood identified three other vulnerabilities in the Ecava’s IntegraXor SCADA Server. Ecava has produced a patch that mitigates these vulnerabilities. Alain Homewood has tested the patch to validate that it resolves the vulnerabilities he has identified.
These vulnerabilities could be exploited remotely.
The following Ecava products are affected:
These vulnerabilities allow an attacker to read and modify files and database records on the Ecava IntegraXor SCADA server. This could allow an attacker to read previously exported reports and files on the server; overwrite reports and files; read and modify records in the database, including tables that users do not typically have access to; create large files to cause a denial of service; and write malicious files that can be leveraged to further attack a system.
Impact to individual organizations depends on many factors that are unique to each organization. ICS-CERT recommends that organizations evaluate the impact of these vulnerabilities based on their operational environment, architecture, and product implementation.
Ecava Sdn Bhd (Ecava) is a Malaysia-based software development company that provides the IntegraXor SCADA product. Ecava specializes in factory and process automation solutions.
IntegraXor is a suite of tools used to create and run a web-based human-machine interface for a SCADA system. IntegraXor is currently used in several areas of process control in 38 countries, with the largest installations based in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Poland, Canada, and Estonia.
IntegraXor has the ability to export various reports to CSV files. An attacker could manipulate this functionality to read and write any file as an unauthenticated user. This could cause a loss of confidentiality in logs, reports, and configuration settings. Denial of service can also be generated by creating large-sized files on the server. Malicious files can be uploaded and leveraged as part of a cross-site request forgery attack against authorized users.
CVE-2014-2375b has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v2 base score of 8.3 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:M/Au:N/C:P/I:P/A:C).c
Ecava IntegraXor makes use of several back end SQL databases. Reading and writing data to the logging and report databases is less secure because it was intended that unauthenticated users would be able to read logs and be able to read and delete reports. By manipulating SQL queries, an attacker could read arbitrary files from the server, connect to other SQL databases, and read data from tables that are normally restricted. An attacker could cause a denial of service by writing a large amount of data to the database or by manipulating the SQL query to be computationally complex. In addition with this access, an attacker could manipulate data within the tables, including configuration data.
CVE-2014-2376e has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v2 base score of 7.5 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:P/I:P/A:P).f
Ecava IntegraXor includes built-in application tags. These application tags disclose information that could be used to identify full path names of files, which can be leveraged with the SQL Injection vulnerability.
CVE-2014-2377i has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v2 base score of 5.0 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:P/I:N/A:N).j
Ecava IntegraXor’s SQL database allows for the guest user to execute select queries and potentially upload malicious files.
CVE-2014-0786l has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v2 base score of 7.5 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:P/I:P/A:P).m
These vulnerabilities could be exploited remotely.
No known public exploits specifically target these vulnerabilities.
An attacker with a low skill would be able to exploit these vulnerabilities.
Ecava has produced a patch to address all four vulnerabilities identified. The patch can be downloaded from:
ICS-CERT encourages asset owners to take additional defensive measures to protect against this and other cybersecurity risks.
ICS-CERT also provides a section for control systems security recommended practices on the ICS-CERT web page at <http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/content/recommended-practices>. Several recommended practices are available for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies. ICS-CERT reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.
Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available in the ICS‑CERT Technical Information Paper, ICS-TIP-12-146-01B—Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation Strategies, that is available for download from the ICS-CERT web site (www.ics-cert.org).
Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their established internal procedures and report their findings to ICS-CERT for tracking and correlation against other incidents.